Sarah Nilsson, JD, PhD, MAS
Sarah Nilsson, JD, PhD, MAS

I. Preflight Preparation 

Note: This course is designed only for single-engine land aircraft so where you see a section in blue it applies to seaplanes or a section in light green it applies to multiengine aircraft so both may be disregarded for the purpose of obtaining the single-engine land certificate.

Task

A. Pilot Qualifications

References

14 CFR part 61 

14 CFR part 68

14 CFR part 91

FAA-H-8083-2

FAA-H-8083-25

AC 68-1

Objective

To determine that the applicant exhibits satisfactory knowledge, risk management, and skills associated with airman and medical certificates including privileges, limitations, currency, and operating as pilot-in-command (PIC) as a private pilot.

Knowledge

The applicant demonstrates understanding of:

PA.I.A.K1

Requirements for certification, recent flight experience, and record keeping.

PA.I.A.K2

Privileges and limitations.

PA.I.A.K3

Medical certificates: class, expiration, privileges, temporary disqualifications.

PA.I.A.K4

Documents required to exercise private pilot privileges.

PA.I.A.K5 Part 68 BasicMed privileges and limitations.

Risk Management

The applicant demonstrates the ability to identify, assess and mitigate risks, encompassing:

PA.I.A.R1

Failure to distinguish proficiency versus currency.

PA.I.A.R2

Flying unfamiliar aircraft, or operating with unfamiliar flight display systems, and avionics.

Skills

The applicant demonstrates the ability to:

PA.I.A.S1

Apply requirements to act as PIC under Visual Flight Rules (VFR) in a scenario given by the evaluator.

Task

B. Airworthiness Requirements

References

14 CFR part 39

14 CFR part 43

14 CFR part 91

FAA-H-8083-2

FAA-H-8083-25

Objective

To determine that the applicant exhibits satisfactory knowledge, risk management, and skills associated with airworthiness requirements, including aircraft certificates.

Knowledge

The applicant demonstrates understanding of:

PA.I.B.K1

General airworthiness requirements and compliance for airplanes, including:

PA.I.B.K1a

a. Certificate location and expiration dates

PA.I.B.K1b

b. Required inspections and aircraft logbook documentation

PA.I.B.K1c

c. Airworthiness Directives and Special Airworthiness Information Bulletins

PA.I.B.K1d

d. Purpose and procedure for obtaining a special flight permit

PA.I.B.K2

Pilot-performed preventive maintenance.

PA.I.B.K3

Equipment requirements for day and night VFR flight, to include:

PA.I.B.K3a

a. Flying with inoperative equipment

PA.I.B.K3b

b. Using an approved Minimum Equipment List (MEL)

PA.I.B.K3c

c. Kinds of Operation Equipment List (KOEL)

PA.I.B.K3d

d. Required discrepancy records or placards

Risk Management

The applicant demonstrates the ability to identify, assess and mitigate risks, encompassing:

PA.I.B.R1

Inoperative equipment discovered prior to flight.

Skills

The applicant demonstrates the ability to:

PA.I.B.S1

Locate and describe aircraft airworthiness and registration information.

PA.I.B.S2

Determine the aircraft is airworthy in a scenario given by the evaluator.

PA.I.B.S3

Apply appropriate procedures for operating with inoperative equipment in a scenario given by the evaluator.

Task

C. Weather Information

References

14 CFR part 91

FAA-H-8083-25

AC 00-6

AC 00-45

AC 00-54

AIM

Objective

To determine that the applicant exhibits satisfactory knowledge, risk management, and skills associated with weather information for a flight under VFR.

Knowledge

The applicant demonstrates understanding of:

PA.I.C.K1

Acceptable sources of weather data for flight planning purposes.

PA.I.C.K2

Weather products and resources required for preflight planning, current and forecast weather for departure, en route, and arrival phases of flight.

PA.I.C.K3

Meteorology applicable to the departure, en route, alternate, and destination under VFR in Visual Meteorological Conditions (VMC) to include expected climate and hazardous conditions such as:

PA.I.C.K3a

a. Atmospheric composition and stability

PA.I.C.K3b

b. Wind (e.g., crosswind, tailwind, wind shear, etc.)

PA.I.C.K3c

c. Temperature

PA.I.C.K3d

d. Moisture/precipitation

PA.I.C.K3e

e. Weather system formation, including air masses and fronts

PA.I.C.K3f

f. Clouds

PA.I.C.K3g

g. Turbulence

PA.I.C.K3h

h. Thunderstorms and microburst

PA.I.C.K3i

i. Icing and freezing level information

PA.I.C.K3j

j. Fog

PA.I.C.K3k

k. Frost

PA.I.C.K4

Flight deck displays of digital weather and aeronautical information.

Risk Management

The applicant demonstrates the ability to identify, assess and mitigate risks, encompassing:

PA.I.C.R1

Factors involved in making the go/no go and continue/divert decisions, to include:

PA.I.C.R1a

a. Circumstances that would make diversion prudent

PA.I.C.R1b

b. Personal weather minimums

PA.I.C.R1c c. Hazardous weather conditions to include known or forecast icing or turbulence aloft

PA.I.C.R2

Limitations of:

PA.I.C.R2a

a. Onboard weather equipment

PA.I.C.R2b

b. Aviation weather reports and forecasts

PA.I.C.R2c

c. Inflight weather resources

Skills

The applicant demonstrates the ability to:

PA.I.C.S1

Use available aviation weather resources, obtain an adequate weather briefing, and correlate weather information to make a competent go/no-go decision.

PA.I.C.S2

Discuss the implications of at least three of the conditions listed in K3a through K3k above, using actual weather or weather conditions in a scenario provided by the evaluator.

Task

D. Cross-Country Flight Planning

References

14 CFR part 91

FAA-H-8083-2

FAA-H-8083-25

Navigation Charts

Chart Supplements

AIM

NOTAMs

Objective

To determine that the applicant exhibits satisfactory knowledge, risk management, and skills associated with cross-country flights and VFR flight planning.

Knowledge

The applicant demonstrates understanding of:

PA.I.D.K1

Route planning, including consideration of different classes and special use airspace (SUA) and selection of appropriate and available navigation/communication systems and facilities.

PA.I.D.K2

Altitude selection accounting for terrain and obstacles, glide distance of aircraft, VFR cruising altitudes, and the effect of wind.

PA.I.D.K3

Calculating:

PA.I.D.K3a

a. Time, climb and descent rates, course, distance, heading, true airspeed, and groundspeed

PA.I.D.K3b

b. Estimated time of arrival to include conversion to universal coordinated time (UTC)

PA.I.D.K3c

c. Fuel requirements, to include reserve

PA.I.D.K4

Elements of a VFR flight plan.

PA.I.D.K5

Procedures for activating and closing a VFR flight plan.

Risk Management

The applicant demonstrates the ability to identify, assess and mitigate risks, encompassing:

PA.I.D.R1

Pilot.

PA.I.D.R2

Aircraft.

PA.I.D.R3

Environment (e.g., weather, airports, airspace, terrain, obstacles).

PA.I.D.R4

External pressures.

PA.I.D.R5

Limitations of air traffic control (ATC) services.

PA.I.D.R6

Improper fuel planning.

Skills

The applicant demonstrates the ability to:

PA.I.D.S1

Prepare, present and explain a cross-country flight plan assigned by the evaluator including a risk analysis based on real-time weather, to the first fuel stop.

PA.I.D.S2

Apply pertinent information from appropriate and current aeronautical charts, chart supplements; NOTAMs relative to airport, runway and taxiway closures; and other flight publications.

PA.I.D.S3

Create a navigation log and simulate filing a VFR flight plan.

PA.I.D.S4

Recalculate fuel reserves based on a scenario provided by the evaluator.

Task

E. National Airspace System

References

14 CFR part 71

14 CFR part 91

14 CFR part 93

FAA-H-8083-2

Navigation Charts

AIM

Objective

To determine that the applicant exhibits satisfactory knowledge, risk management, and skills associated with the National Airspace System (NAS) operating under VFR as a private pilot.

Knowledge

The applicant demonstrates understanding of:

PA.I.E.K1

Types of airspace/airspace classes and associated requirements and limitations.

PA.I.E.K2

Charting symbology.

PA.I.E.K3

Special use airspace (SUA), special flight rules areas (SFRA), temporary flight restrictions (TFR), and other airspace areas.

Risk Management

The applicant demonstrates the ability to identify, assess and mitigate risks, encompassing:

PA.I.E.R1

Various classes of airspace.

Skills

The applicant demonstrates the ability to:

PA.I.E.S1

Explain the requirements for basic VFR weather minimums and flying in particular classes of airspace.

PA.I.E.S2

Correctly identify airspace and operate in accordance with associated communication and equipment requirements.

PA.I.E.S3 Explain the requirements for operating in SUA or within a TFR. Explain SATR and SFRA operations, if applicable.

Task

F. Performance and Limitations

References

FAA-H-8083-1

FAA-H-8083-2

FAA-H-8083-3

FAA-H-8083-25

POH/AFM (specific to the training aircraft)

Objective

To determine that the applicant exhibits satisfactory knowledge, risk management, and skills associated with operating an aircraft safely within the parameters of its performance capabilities and limitations.

Knowledge

The applicant demonstrates understanding of:

PA.I.F.K1

Elements related to performance and limitations by explaining the use of charts, tables, and data to determine performance.

PA.I.F.K2

Factors affecting performance to include:

PA.I.F.K2a

a. Atmospheric conditions

PA.I.F.K2b

b. Pilot technique

PA.I.F.K2c

c. Aircraft configuration

PA.I.F.K2d

d. Airport environment

PA.I.F.K2e

e. Loading (e.g. center of gravity)

PA.I.F.K2f

f. Weight and balance

PA.I.F.K3

Aerodynamics.

Risk Management

The applicant demonstrates the ability to identify, assess and mitigate risks, encompassing:

PA.I.F.R1

Inaccurate use of manufacturer’s performance charts, tables and data.

PA.I.F.R2

Exceeding airplane limitations.

PA.I.F.R3

Possible differences between calculated performance and actual performance.

Skills

The applicant demonstrates the ability to:

PA.I.F.S1

Compute the weight and balance, correct out-of-center of gravity (CG) loading errors and determine if the weight and balance remains within limits during all phases of flight.

PA.I.F.S2

Demonstrate use of the appropriate aircraft manufacturer’s approved performance charts, tables and data.

Task

G. Operation of Systems

References

FAA-H-8083-2

FAA-H-8083-3

FAA-H-8083-23

FAA-H-8083-25

POH/AFM (specific to the training aircraft)

Objective

To determine that the applicant exhibits satisfactory knowledge, risk management, and skills associated with the safe operation of systems on the airplane provided for the flight test.

Knowledge

The applicant demonstrates understanding of:

PA.I.G.K1

Airplane systems, to include:

Note: If K1 is selected, the evaluator must assess the applicant's knowledge of at least three of the following sub-elements. 

PA.I.G.K1a

a. Primary flight controls

PA.I.G.K1b

b. Secondary flight controls

PA.I.G.K1c

c. Powerplant and propeller

PA.I.G.K1d

d. Landing gear

PA.I.G.K1e

e. Fuel, oil, and hydraulic

PA.I.G.K1f

f. Electrical

PA.I.G.K1g

g. Avionics

PA.I.G.K1h

h. Pitot-static, vacuum/pressure, and associated flight instruments

PA.I.G.K1i

i. Environmental

PA.I.G.K1j

j. Deicing and anti-icing

PA.I.G.K1k

k. Water rudders (ASES, AMES)

PA.I.G.K1l

l. Oxygen system

PA.I.G.K2

Indications of and procedures for managing system abnormalities or failures.

Risk Management

The applicant demonstrates the ability to identify, assess and mitigate risks, encompassing:

PA.I.G.R1

Failure to detect system malfunctions or failures.

PA.I.G.R2

Improper management of a system failure.

PA.I.G.R3

Failure to monitor and manage automated systems.

Skills

The applicant demonstrates the ability to:

PA.I.G.S1

Explain and operate at least three of the systems listed in K1a through K1l above.

PA.I.G.S2

Use appropriate checklists properly.

Task

H. Human Factors

References

FAA-H-8083-2

FAA-H-8083-25

AIM

Objective

To determine that the applicant exhibits satisfactory knowledge, risk management, and skills associated with personal health, flight physiology, aeromedical and human factors, as it relates to safety of flight.

Note: See Appendix 6: Safety of Flight.

Knowledge

The applicant demonstrates understanding of:

PA.I.H.K1

The symptoms (as applicable), recognition, causes, effects, and corrective actions associated with aeromedical and physiological issues including:

Note: If K1 is selected, the evaluator must assess the applicant's knowledge of at least three of the following sub-sections.

PA.I.H.K1a

a. Hypoxic hypoxia due to altitude increase or oxygen displacement

PA.I.H.K1b

b. Hyperventilation

PA.I.H.K1c

c. Middle ear and sinus problems

PA.I.H.K1d

d. Spatial disorientation

PA.I.H.K1e

e. Motion sickness

PA.I.H.K1f

f. Carbon monoxide poisoning and other forms of hypemic hypoxia

PA.I.H.K1g

g. Stress 

PA.I.H.K1h

h. Fatigue

PA.I.H.K1i

i. Dehydration and nutrition

PA.I.H.K1j

j. Hypothermia

PA.I.H.K1k

k. Optical illusions

PA.I.H.K1l l. Dissolved nitrogen in the bloodstream after scuba dives

PA.I.H.K2

Regulations regarding use of alcohol and drugs.

PA.I.H.K3

Effects of alcohol, drugs, and over-the-counter medications.

PA.I.H.K4

Aeronautical Decision-Making (ADM).

Risk Management

The applicant demonstrates the ability to identify, assess and mitigate risks encompassing:

PA.I.H.R1

Aeromedical and physiological issues.

PA.I.H.R2

Hazardous attitudes.

PA.I.H.R3

Distractions, loss of situational awareness, and/or improper task management.

Skills

The applicant demonstrates the ability to:

PA.I.H.S1

Describe symptoms (as applicable), recognition, causes, effects, and corrective actions for at least three of the conditions listed in K1a through K1l above.

PA.I.H.S2

Perform self-assessment, including fitness for flight and personal minimums, for actual flight or a scenario given by the evaluator.

Task

I. Water and Seaplane Characteristics, Seaplane Bases, Maritime Rules, and Aids to Marine Navigation (ASES, AMES)

References

FAA-H-8083-2

FAA-H-8083-23

AIM

USCG Navigation Rules

International-Inland

POH/AFM

Chart Supplements

Objective

To determine that the applicant exhibits satisfactory knowledge, risk management, and skills associated with water and seaplane characteristics, seaplane bases, maritime rules, and aids to marine navigation.

Knowledge

The applicant demonstrates understanding of:

PA.I.I.K1

Characteristics of a water surface as affected by features, such as:

PA.I.I.K1a

a. Size and location

PA.I.I.K1b

b. Protected and unprotected areas

PA.I.I.K1c

c. Surface wind

PA.I.I.K1d

d. Direction and strength of water current

PA.I.I.K1e

e. Floating and partially submerged debris

PA.I.I.K1f

f. Sandbars, islands, and shoals

PA.I.I.K1g

g. Vessel traffic and wakes

PA.I.I.K1h

h. Other characteristics specific to the area

PA.I.I.K2

Float and hull construction, and its effect on seaplane performance.

PA.I.I.K3

Causes of porpoising and skipping, and the pilot action needed to prevent or correct these occurrences.

PA.I.I.K4

How to locate and identify seaplane bases on charts or in directories.

PA.I.I.K5

Operating restrictions at various bases.

PA.I.I.K6

Right-of-way, steering, and sailing rules pertinent to seaplane operations.

PA.I.I.K7

Marine navigation aids, such as buoys, beacons, lights, sound signals, and range markers.

Risk Management

The applicant demonstrates the ability to identify, assess and mitigate risks, encompassing:

PA.I.I.R1

Local conditions.

PA.I.I.R2

Impact of marine traffic.

Skills

The applicant demonstrates the ability to:

PA.I.I.S1

Assess the water surface characteristics for the proposed flight.

PA.I.I.S2

Identify restrictions at local seaplane bases.

PA.I.I.S3

Identify marine navigation aids.

PA.I.I.S4

Perform correct right-of-way, steering, and sailing operations.

Contact Me

Sarah Nilsson, JD, PhD, MAS

 

602 561 8665

 

sarah@sarahnilsson.org

 

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Legal disclaimer 

The information on this website is for educational purposes only and DOES NOT constitute legal advice. While the author of this website is an attorney, she is not your attorney, nor are you her client, until you enter into a written agreement with Nilsson Law, PLLC to provide legal services.

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