Sarah Nilsson, JD, PhD, MAS
Sarah Nilsson, JD, PhD, MAS

IV. Takeoffs, Landings, and Go-Arounds

Task

A. Normal Takeoff and Climb

References

FAA-H-8083-2

FAA-H-8083-3

FAA-H-8083-23

POH/AFM (specific to the training aircraft)

AIM

Objective

To determine that the applicant exhibits satisfactory knowledge, risk management, and skills associated with a normal takeoff, climb operations, and rejected takeoff procedures.

Note: If a crosswind condition does not exist, the applicant’s knowledge of crosswind elements must be evaluated through oral testing.

Knowledge

The applicant demonstrates understanding of:

PA.IV.A.K1

Effects of atmospheric conditions, including wind, on takeoff and climb performance.

PA.IV.A.K2

VX and VY.

PA.IV.A.K3

Appropriate airplane configuration.

Risk Management

The applicant demonstrates the ability to identify, assess and mitigate risks, encompassing:

PA.IV.A.R1

Selection of runway based on pilot capability, airplane performance and limitations, available distance, and wind.

PA.IV.A.R2

Effects of:

PA.IV.A.R2a

a. Crosswind

PA.IV.A.R2b

b. Wind shear

PA.IV.A.R2c

c. Tailwind

PA.IV.A.R2d

d. Wake turbulence

PA.IV.A.R2e

e. Runway surface/condition

PA.IV.A.R3

Abnormal operations, to include planning for:

PA.IV.A.R3a

a. Rejected takeoff

PA.IV.A.R3b

b. Engine failure in takeoff/climb phase of flight

PA.IV.A.R4

Collision hazards to include aircraft, vehicles, vessels, persons, wildlife, terrain, obstacles, and wires.

PA.IV.A.R5

Low altitude maneuvering including stall, spin, or CFIT.

PA.IV.A.R6

Distractions, loss of situational awareness, and/or improper task management.

Skills

The applicant demonstrates the ability to:

PA.IV.A.S1

Complete the appropriate checklist.

PA.IV.A.S2

Make radio calls as appropriate.

PA.IV.A.S3

Verify assigned/correct runway.

PA.IV.A.S4

Ascertain wind direction with or without visible wind direction indicators.

PA.IV.A.S5

Position the flight controls for the existing wind conditions.

PA.IV.A.S6

Clear the area; taxi into the takeoff position and align the airplane on the runway centerline (ASEL, AMEL) or takeoff path (ASES, AMES).

PA.IV.A.S7

Confirm takeoff power and proper engine and flight instrument indications prior to rotation (ASEL, AMEL).

PA.IV.A.S8

Rotate and lift off at the recommended airspeed and accelerate to VY.

PA.IV.A.S9

Retract the water rudders, as appropriate, establish and maintain the most efficient planing/liftoff attitude, and correct for porpoising and skipping (ASES, AMES).

PA.IV.A.S10

Establish a pitch attitude to maintain the manufacturer’s recommended speed or VY, +10/-5 knots.

PA.IV.A.S11

Configure the airplane in accordance with manufacturer’s guidance.

PA.IV.A.S12

Maintain VY+10/-5 knots to a safe maneuvering altitude.

PA.IV.A.S13

Maintain directional control and proper wind drift correction throughout takeoff and climb.

PA.IV.A.S14

Comply with noise abatement procedures.

 

Task

B. Normal Approach and Landing

References

FAA-H-8083-2

FAA-H-8083-3

FAA-H-8083-23

POH/AFM (specific to the training aircraft)

AIM

Objective

To determine that the applicant exhibits satisfactory knowledge, risk management, and skills associated with a normal approach and landing with emphasis on proper use and coordination of flight controls.

Note: If a crosswind condition does not exist, the applicant’s knowledge of crosswind elements must be evaluated through oral testing.

Knowledge

The applicant demonstrates understanding of:

PA.IV.B.K1

A stabilized approach, to include energy management concepts.

PA.IV.B.K2

Effects of atmospheric conditions, including wind, on approach and landing performance.

PA.IV.B.K3

Wind correction techniques on approach and landing.

Risk Management

The applicant demonstrates the ability to identify, assess and mitigate risks, encompassing:

PA.IV.B.R1

 

Selection of runway based on pilot capability, airplane performance and limitations, available distance, and wind.

PA.IV.B.R2

Effects of:

PA.IV.B.R2a

a. Crosswind

PA.IV.B.R2b

b. Wind shear

PA.IV.B.R2c

c. Tailwind

PA.IV.B.R2d

d. Wake turbulence

PA.IV.B.R2e

e. Runway surface/condition

PA.IV.B.R3

Planning for:

PA.IV.B.R3a

a. Go-around and rejected landing

PA.IV.B.R3b

b. Land and hold short operations (LAHSO)

PA.IV.B.R4

Collision hazards, to include aircraft, vehicles, vessels, persons, wildlife, terrain, obstacles and wires.

PA.IV.B.R5

Low altitude maneuvering including stall, spin or CFIT.

PA.IV.B.R6

Distractions, loss of situational awareness, and/or improper task management.

Skills

The applicant demonstrates the ability to:

PA.IV.B.S1

Complete the appropriate checklist.

PA.IV.B.S2

Make radio calls as appropriate.

PA.IV.B.S3

Ensure the airplane is aligned with the correct/assigned runway or landing surface.

PA.IV.B.S4

Scan runway or landing surface and the adjoining area for traffic and obstructions.

PA.IV.B.S5

Consider the wind conditions, landing surface, obstructions, and select a suitable touchdown point.

PA.IV.B.S6

Establish the recommended approach and landing configuration and airspeed, and adjust pitch attitude and power as required to maintain a stabilized approach.

PA.IV.B.S7

Maintain manufacturer’s published approach airspeed, or in its absence, not more than 1.3 VSO, +10/-5 knots with gust factor applied.

PA.IV.B.S8

Maintain crosswind correction and directional control throughout the approach and landing.

PA.IV.B.S9

Make smooth, timely, and correct control application during round out and touchdown.

PA.IV.B.S10

Touch down at a proper pitch attitude, within 400 feet beyond or on the specified point, with no side drift, and with the airplane's longitudinal axis aligned with and over the runway center/landing path.

PA.IV.B.S11

Execute a timely go-around if the approach cannot be made within the tolerances specified above or for any other condition that may result in an unsafe approach or landing.

PA.IV.B.S12

Utilize runway incursion avoidance procedures.

 

Task

C. Soft-Field Takeoff and Climb (ASEL)

References

FAA-H-8083-2

FAA-H-8083-3

POH/AFM (specific to the training aircraft)

AIM

Objective

To determine that the applicant exhibits satisfactory knowledge, risk management, and skills associated with a soft-field takeoff, climb operations, and rejected takeoff procedures.

Knowledge

The applicant demonstrates understanding of:

PA.IV.C.K1

Effects of atmospheric conditions, including wind, on takeoff and climb performance.

PA.IV.C.K2

VX and VY.

PA.IV.C.K3

Appropriate airplane configuration.

PA.IV.C.K4

Ground effect.

PA.IV.C.K5

Importance of weight transfer from wheels to wings.

PA.IV.C.K6

Left turning tendencies.

Risk Management

The applicant demonstrates the ability to identify, assess and mitigate risks, encompassing:

PA.IV.C.R1

Selection of runway based on pilot capability, aircraft performance and limitations, available distance, and wind.

PA.IV.C.R2

Effects of:

PA.IV.C.R2a

a. Crosswind

PA.IV.C.R2b

b. Wind shear

PA.IV.C.R2c

c. Tailwind

PA.IV.C.R2d

d. Wake turbulence

PA.IV.C.R2e

e. Runway surface/condition

PA.IV.C.R3

Abnormal operations, to include planning for:

PA.IV.C.R3a

a. Rejected takeoff

PA.IV.C.R3b

b. Engine failure in takeoff/climb phase of flight

PA.IV.C.R4

Collision hazards, to include aircraft, vehicles, persons, wildlife, terrain, obstacles and wires.

PA.IV.C.R5

Low altitude maneuvering including stall, spin or CFIT.

PA.IV.C.R6

Distractions, loss of situational awareness, and/or improper task management.

Skills

The applicant demonstrates the ability to:

PA.IV.C.S1

Complete the appropriate checklist.

PA.IV.C.S2

Make radio calls as appropriate.

PA.IV.C.S3

Verify assigned/correct runway.

PA.IV.C.S4

Ascertain wind direction with or without visible wind direction indicators.

PA.IV.C.S5

Position the flight controls for the existing wind conditions.

PA.IV.C.S6

Clear the area, maintain necessary flight control inputs, taxi into takeoff position and align the airplane on the runway centerline without stopping, while advancing the throttle smoothly to takeoff power.

PA.IV.C.S7

Confirm takeoff power and proper engine and flight instrument indications.

PA.IV.C.S8

Establish and maintain a pitch attitude that will transfer the weight of the airplane from the wheels to the wings as rapidly as possible.

PA.IV.C.S9

Lift off at the lowest possible airspeed and remain in ground effect while accelerating to VX or VY, as appropriate.

PA.IV.C.S10

Establish a pitch attitude for VX or VY, as appropriate, and maintain selected airspeed +10/-5 knots during the climb.

PA.IV.C.S11

Configure the airplane after a positive rate of climb has been verified or in accordance with airplane manufacturer’s instructions.

PA.IV.C.S12

Maintain VX or VY +10/-5 knots to a safe maneuvering altitude.

PA.IV.C.S13

Maintain directional control and proper wind-drift correction throughout takeoff and climb.

PA.IV.C.S14

Comply with noise abatement procedures.

 

Task

D. Soft-Field Approach and Landing (ASEL)

References

FAA-H-8083-2

FAA-H-8083-3

POH/AFM (specific to the training aircraft)

AIM

Objective

To determine that the applicant exhibits satisfactory knowledge, risk management, and skills associated with a soft-field approach and landing with emphasis on proper use and coordination of flight controls.

Knowledge

The applicant demonstrates understanding of:

PA.IV.D.K1

A stabilized approach, to include energy management concepts.

PA.IV.D.K2

Effects of atmospheric conditions, including wind, on approach and landing performance.

PA.IV.D.K3

Wind correction techniques on approach and landing.

Risk Management

The applicant demonstrates the ability to identify, assess and mitigate risks, encompassing:

PA.IV.D.R1

Selection of runway based on pilot capability, airplane performance and limitations, available distance, and wind.

PA.IV.D.R2

Effects of:

PA.IV.D.R2a

a. Crosswind

PA.IV.D.R2b

b. Wind shear

PA.IV.D.R2c

c. Tailwind

PA.IV.D.R2d

d. Wake turbulence

PA.IV.D.R2e

e. Runway surface/condition

PA.IV.D.R3

Planning for:

PA.IV.D.R3a a. Go-around and rejected landing
PA.IV.D.R3b b. Land and hold short operations (LAHSO)

PA.IV.D.R4

Collision hazards, to include aircraft, vehicles, persons, wildlife, terrain, obstacles and wires.

PA.IV.D.R5

Low altitude maneuvering including stall, spin or CFIT.

PA.IV.D.R6

Distractions, loss of situational awareness, and/or improper task management.

Skills

The applicant demonstrates the ability to:

PA.IV.D.S1

Complete the appropriate checklist.

PA.IV.D.S2

Make radio calls as appropriate.

PA.IV.D.S3

Ensure the airplane is aligned with the correct/assigned runway.

PA.IV.D.S4

Scan the landing runway and adjoining area for traffic and obstructions.

PA.IV.D.S5

Consider the wind conditions, landing surface, obstructions, and select a suitable touchdown point.

PA.IV.D.S6

Establish the recommended approach and landing configuration and airspeed, and adjust pitch attitude and power as required to maintain a stabilized approach.

PA.IV.D.S7

Maintain manufacturer's published airspeed, or in its absence, not more than 1.3 VSO, +10/-5 knots, with gust factor applied.

PA.IV.D.S8

Maintain crosswind correction and directional control throughout the approach and landing.

PA.IV.D.S9

Make smooth, timely, and correct control inputs during the round out and touchdown and, for tricycle gear airplanes, keep the nose wheel off the surface until loss of elevator effectiveness.

PA.IV.D.S10

Touch down at a proper pitch attitude with minimum sink rate, no side drift, and with the airplane’s longitudinal axis aligned with the center of the runway.

PA.IV.D.S11

Maintain elevator as recommended by manufacturer during rollout and exit the “soft” area at a speed that would preclude sinking into the surface.

PA.IV.D.S12

Execute a timely go-around if the approach cannot be made within the tolerances specified above or for any other condition that may result in an unsafe approach or landing.

PA.IV.D.S13

Maintain proper position of the flight controls and sufficient speed to taxi on the soft surface.

 

Task

E. Short-Field Takeoff and Maximum Performance Climb (ASEL, AMEL)

References

FAA-H-8083-2

FAA-H-8083-3

POH/AFM (specific to the training aircraft)

AIM

Objective

To determine that the applicant exhibits satisfactory knowledge, risk management, and skills associated with a short-field takeoff, maximum performance climb operations, and rejected takeoff procedures.

Knowledge

The applicant demonstrates understanding of:

PA.IV.E.K1

Effects of atmospheric conditions, including wind, on takeoff and climb performance.

PA.IV.E.K2

VX and VY.

PA.IV.E.K3

Appropriate airplane configuration.

Risk Management

The applicant demonstrates the ability to identify, assess and mitigate risks, encompassing:

PA.IV.E.R1

Selection of runway based on pilot capability, airplane performance and limitations, available distance, and wind.

PA.IV.E.R2

Effects of:

PA.IV.E.R2a

a. Crosswind

PA.IV.E.R2b

b. Wind shear

PA.IV.E.R2c

c. Tailwind

PA.IV.E.R2d

d. Wake turbulence

PA.IV.E.R2e

e. Runway surface/condition

PA.IV.E.R3

Abnormal operations, to include planning for:

PA.IV.E.R3a

a. Rejected takeoff

PA.IV.E.R3b

b. Engine failure in takeoff/climb phase of flight

PA.IV.E.R4

Collision hazards, to include aircraft, vehicles, persons, wildlife, terrain, obstacles, and wires.

PA.IV.E.R5

Low altitude maneuvering including stall, spin or CFIT.

PA.IV.E.R6

Distractions, loss of situational awareness, and/or improper task management.

Skills

The applicant demonstrates the ability to:

PA.IV.E.S1

Complete the appropriate checklist.

PA.IV.E.S2

Make radio calls as appropriate.

PA.IV.E.S3

Verify assigned/correct runway.

PA.IV.E.S4

Ascertain wind direction with or without visible wind direction indicators.

PA.IV.E.S5

Position the flight controls for the existing wind conditions.

PA.IV.E.S6

Clear the area, taxi into takeoff position and align the airplane on the runway centerline utilizing maximum available takeoff area.

PA.IV.E.S7

Apply brakes while setting engine power to achieve maximum performance.

PA.IV.E.S8

Confirm takeoff power prior to brake release and verify proper engine and flight instrument indications prior to rotation.

PA.IV.E.S9

Rotate and lift off at the recommended airspeed, and accelerate to the recommended obstacle clearance airspeed or VX +10/-5 knots.

PA.IV.E.S10

Establish a pitch attitude that will maintain the recommended obstacle clearance airspeed, or VX, +10/-5 knots, until the obstacle is cleared, or until the airplane is 50 feet above the surface.

PA.IV.E.S11

After clearing the obstacle, establish pitch attitude for VY, and accelerate to and maintain VY, +10/-5 knots, during the climb.

PA.IV.E.S12

Configure the airplane in accordance with the manufacturer's guidance after a positive rate of climb has been verified.

PA.IV.E.S13

Maintain VY +10/-5 knots to a safe maneuvering altitude.

PA.IV.E.S14

Maintain directional control and proper wind-drift correction throughout takeoff and climb.

PA.IV.E.S15

Comply with noise abatement procedures.

 

Task

F. Short-Field Approach and Landing (ASEL, AMEL)

References

FAA-H-8083-2

FAA-H-8083-3

POH/AFM (specific to the training aircraft)

AIM

Objective

To determine that the applicant exhibits satisfactory knowledge, risk management, and skills associated with a short-field approach and landing with emphasis on proper use and coordination of flight controls.

Knowledge

The applicant demonstrates understanding of:

PA.IV.F.K1

A stabilized approach, to include energy management concepts.

PA.IV.F.K2

Effects of atmospheric conditions, including wind, on approach and landing performance.

PA.IV.F.K3

Wind correction techniques on approach and landing.

Risk Management

The applicant demonstrates the ability to identify, assess and mitigate risks, encompassing:

PA.IV.F.R1

Selection of runway based on pilot capability, airplane performance and limitations, available distance, and wind.

PA.IV.F.R2

Effects of:

PA.IV.F.R2a

a. Crosswind

PA.IV.F.R2b

b. Wind shear

PA.IV.F.R2c

c. Tailwind

PA.IV.F.R2d

d. Wake turbulence

PA.IV.F.R2e

e. Runway surface/condition

PA.IV.F.R3

Planning for:

PA.IV.F.R3a

a. Go-around and rejected landing

PA.IV.F.R3b

b. Land and hold short operations (LAHSO)

PA.IV.F.R4

Collision hazards, to include aircraft, vehicles, persons, wildlife, terrain, obstacles and wires.

PA.IV.F.R5

Low altitude maneuvering including stall, spin or CFIT.

PA.IV.F.R6

Distractions, loss of situational awareness, and/or improper task management.

Skills

The applicant demonstrates the ability to:

PA.IV.F.S1

Complete the appropriate checklist.

PA.IV.F.S2

Make radio calls as appropriate.

PA.IV.F.S3

Ensure the airplane is aligned with the correct/assigned runway.

PA.IV.F.S4

Scan the landing runway and adjoining area for traffic and obstructions.

PA.IV.F.S5

Consider the wind conditions, landing surface, obstructions, and select a suitable touchdown point.

PA.IV.F.S6

Establish the recommended approach and landing configuration and airspeed, and adjust pitch attitude and power as required to maintain a stabilized approach.

PA.IV.F.S7

Maintain manufacturer’s published airspeed, or in its absence, not more than 1.3 VSO, +10/-5 knots, with gust factor applied.

PA.IV.F.S8

Maintain crosswind correction and directional control throughout the approach and landing sequence.

PA.IV.F.S9

Make smooth, timely, and correct control application during the round out and touchdown.

PA.IV.F.S10

Touch down at a proper pitch attitude within 200 feet beyond or on the specified point, threshold markings, or runway numbers, with no side drift, minimum float, and with the airplane's longitudinal axis aligned with and over runway centerline.

PA.IV.F.S11

Use manufacturer’s recommended procedures for airplane configuration and braking.

PA.IV.F.S12

Execute a timely go-around if the approach cannot be made within the tolerances specified above or for any other condition that may result in an unsafe approach or landing.

PA.IV.F.S13

Utilize runway incursion avoidance procedures.

 

Task

G. Confined Area Takeoff and Maximum Performance Climb (ASES, AMES)

References

FAA-H-8083-2

FAA-H-8083-3

FAA-H-8083-23

POH/AFM

Objective

To determine that the applicant exhibits satisfactory knowledge, risk management, and skills associated with a confined area takeoff, and maximum performance climb operations.

Knowledge

The applicant demonstrates understanding of:

PA.IV.G.K1

Effects of atmospheric conditions, including wind, on takeoff and climb performance.

PA.IV.G.K2

VX and VY.

PA.IV.G.K3

Appropriate aircraft configuration.

PA.IV.G.K4

Effects of water surface.

Risk Management

The applicant demonstrates the ability to identify, assess and mitigate risks, encompassing:

PA.IV.G.R1

Selection of takeoff path based on pilot capability, aircraft performance and limitations, available distance, and wind.

PA.IV.G.R2

Effects of:

PA.IV.G.R2a

a. Crosswind

PA.IV.G.R2b

b. Wind shear

PA.IV.G.R2c

c. Tailwind

PA.IV.G.R2d

d. Wake turbulence

PA.IV.G.R2e

e. Water surface/condition

PA.IV.G.R3

Abnormal operations, to include planning for:

PA.IV.G.R3a

a. Rejected takeoff

PA.IV.G.R3b

b. Engine failure in takeoff/climb phase of flight

PA.IV.G.R4

Collision hazards, to include aircraft, terrain, obstacles, wires, and vessels.

PA.IV.G.R5

Low altitude maneuvering/stall/spin.

PA.IV.G.R6

Distractions, loss of situational awareness, and/or improper task management.

Skills

The applicant demonstrates the ability to:

PA.IV.G.S1

Complete the appropriate checklist.

PA.IV.G.S2

Make radio calls as appropriate.

PA.IV.G.S3

Verify assigned/correct takeoff path.

PA.IV.G.S4

Ascertain wind direction with or without visible wind direction indicators.

PA.IV.G.S5

Position the flight controls for the existing wind conditions.

PA.IV.G.S6

Clear the area, taxi into takeoff position utilizing maximum available takeoff area and align the airplane on the takeoff path.

PA.IV.G.S7

Confirm takeoff power and proper engine and flight instrument indications prior to rotation.

PA.IV.G.S8

Establish a pitch attitude that maintains the most efficient planing/liftoff attitude and corrects for porpoising and skipping.

PA.IV.G.S9

Rotate and liftoff at the recommended airspeed, and accelerate to the recommended obstacle clearance airspeed or VX.

PA.IV.G.S10

Establish a pitch attitude that will maintain the recommended obstacle clearance airspeed, or VX +10/-5 knots until the obstacle is cleared, or until the airplane is 50 feet above the surface.

PA.IV.G.S11

After clearing the obstacle, establish pitch attitude for VY, accelerate to VY, and maintain VY, +10/-5 knots, during the climb.

PA.IV.G.S12

Retract flaps after a positive rate of climb has been verified or in accordance with aircraft manufacturer’s guidance.

PA.IV.G.S13

Maintain VY +10/-5 knots to a safe maneuvering altitude.

PA.IV.G.S14

Maintain directional control and proper wind-drift correction throughout takeoff and climb.

PA.IV.G.S15

Comply with noise abatement procedures.

 

Task

H. Confined Area Approach and Landing (ASES, AMES)

References

FAA-H-8083-2

FAA-H-8083-3

FAA-H-8083-23

POH/AFM

Objective

To determine that the applicant exhibits satisfactory knowledge, risk management, and skills associated with a confined area approach and landing.

Knowledge

The applicant demonstrates understanding of:

PA.IV.H.K1

A stabilized approach, to include energy management concepts.

PA.IV.H.K2

Effects of atmospheric conditions, including wind, on approach and landing performance.

PA.IV.H.K3

Wind correction techniques on approach and landing.

Risk

Management

The applicant demonstrates the ability to identify, assess and mitigate risks, encompassing:

PA.IV.H.R1

Selection of approach path and touchdown area based on pilot capability, aircraft performance and limitations, available distance, and wind.

PA.IV.H.R2

Effects of:

PA.IV.H.R2a

a. Crosswind

PA.IV.H.R2b

b. Wind shear

PA.IV.H.R2c

c. Tailwind

PA.IV.H.R2d

d. Wake turbulence

PA.IV.H.R2e

e. Water surface/condition

PA.IV.H.R3

Abnormal operations, to include planning for rejected landing and go-around.

PA.IV.H.R4

Collision hazards, to include aircraft, terrain, obstacles, wires, and vessels.

PA.IV.H.R5

Low altitude maneuvering/stall/spin.

PA.IV.H.R6

Distractions, loss of situational awareness, and/or improper task management.

Skills

The applicant demonstrates the ability to:

PA.IV.H.S1

Complete the appropriate checklist.

PA.IV.H.S2

Make radio calls as appropriate.

PA.IV.H.S3

Ensure the aircraft is aligned with the correct/assigned waterway.

PA.IV.H.S4

Scan the landing area for traffic and obstructions.

PA.IV.H.S5

Consider wind conditions, landing surface, obstructions, and select the proper landing path.

PA.IV.H.S6

Establish the recommended approach and landing configuration and airspeed, and adjust pitch attitude and power as required to maintain a stabilized approach.

PA.IV.H.S7

Maintain manufacturer’s published airspeed, or in its absence, not more than 1.3 VSO, +10/-5 knots, with wind gust factor applied.

PA.IV.H.S8

Maintain crosswind correction and directional control throughout the approach and landing, as required.

PA.IV.H.S9

Make smooth, timely, and correct control application during the round out and touchdown.

PA.IV.H.S10

Contact the water at the minimum safe airspeed with the proper pitch attitude for the surface conditions.

PA.IV.H.S11

Touch down within 200 feet beyond the specified point, with no side drift, minimum float, and with the airplane’s longitudinal axis aligned with the projected landing path.

PA.IV.H.S12

Execute a timely go-around if the approach cannot be made within the tolerances specified above or for any other condition that that may result in an unsafe approach or landing.

PA.IV.H.S13

Apply elevator control as necessary to stop in the shortest distance consistent with safety.

 

Task

I. Glassy Water Takeoff and Climb (ASES, AMES)

References

FAA-H-8083-2

FAA-H-8083-23

POH/AFM

Objective

 

To determine that the applicant exhibits satisfactory knowledge, risk management, and skills associated with a glassy water takeoff and climb.

Note: If a glassy water condition does not exist, the applicant must be evaluated by simulating the Task.

Knowledge

The applicant demonstrates understanding of:

PA.IV.I.K1

Effects of atmospheric conditions, including wind, on takeoff and climb performance.

PA.IV.I.K2

VX and VY.

PA.IV.I.K3

Appropriate aircraft configuration.

PA.IV.I.K4

Appropriate use of glassy water takeoff and climb technique.

Risk

Management

The applicant demonstrates the ability to identify, assess and mitigate risks, encompassing:

PA.IV.I.R1

Selection of takeoff path based on pilot capability, aircraft performance and limitations, available distance, and wind.

PA.IV.I.R2

Water surface/condition.

PA.IV.I.R3

Abnormal operations, to include planning for:

PA.IV.I.R3a

a. Rejected takeoff criteria

PA.IV.I.R3b

b. Engine failure in takeoff/climb phase of flight

PA.IV.I.R4

Collision hazards, to include aircraft, terrain, obstacles, wires, and vessels.

PA.IV.I.R5

Low altitude maneuvering/stall/spin.

PA.IV.I.R6

Distractions, loss of situational awareness, and/or improper task management.

PA.IV.I.R7

Failure to confirm gear position in an amphibious aircraft.

Skills

The applicant demonstrates the ability to:

PA.IV.I.S1

Complete the appropriate checklist.

PA.IV.I.S2

Make radio calls as appropriate.

PA.IV.I.S3

Position flight controls and flaps for the existing conditions.

PA.IV.I.S4

Clear the area; select appropriate takeoff path considering surface hazards and/or vessels and surface conditions.

PA.IV.I.S5

Retract the water rudders as appropriate; advance the throttle smoothly to takeoff power.

PA.IV.I.S6

Establish and maintain an appropriate planing attitude, directional control, and correct for porpoising, skipping, and increase in water drag.

PA.IV.I.S7

Utilize appropriate techniques to lift seaplane from the water considering surface conditions.

PA.IV.I.S8

Establish proper attitude/airspeed, and accelerate to VY +10/-5 knots during the climb.

PA.IV.I.S9

Retract flaps after a positive rate of climb has been verified or in accordance with aircraft manufacturer’s guidance.

PA.IV.I.S10

Maintain VY +10/-5 knots to a safe maneuvering altitude.

PA.IV.I.S11

Maintain directional control and proper wind-drift correction throughout takeoff and climb.

 

Task

J. Glassy Water Approach and Landing (ASES, AMES)

References

FAA-H-8083-2, FAA-H-8083-23; POH/AFM

Objective

To determine that the applicant exhibits satisfactory knowledge, risk management, and skills associated with a glassy water approach and landing.

Note: If a glassy water condition does not exist, the applicant must be evaluated by simulating the Task.

Knowledge

The applicant demonstrates understanding of:

PA.IV.J.K1

A stabilized approach, to include energy management concepts.

PA.IV.J.K2

Effects of atmospheric conditions, including wind, on approach and landing performance.

PA.IV.J.K3

When and why glassy water techniques are used.

PA.IV.J.K4

How a glassy water approach and landing is executed.

Risk Management

The applicant demonstrates the ability to identify, assess and mitigate risks, encompassing:

PA.IV.J.R1

Selection of approach path and touchdown area based on pilot capability, aircraft performance and limitations, available distance, and wind.

PA.IV.J.R2

Water surface/condition.

PA.IV.J.R3

Abnormal operations, to include planning for rejected landing and go-around.

PA.IV.J.R4

Collision hazards, to include aircraft, terrain, obstacle, wires, and vessels.

PA.IV.J.R5

Low altitude maneuvering/stall/spin.

PA.IV.J.R6

Distractions, loss of situational awareness, and/or improper task management.

PA.IV.J.R7

Failure to confirm gear position in an amphibious aircraft.

Skills

The applicant demonstrates the ability to:

PA.IV.J.S1

Complete the appropriate checklist.

PA.IV.J.S2

Make radio calls as appropriate.

PA.IV.J.S3

Scan the landing area for traffic and obstructions.

PA.IV.J.S4

Consider landing surface, obstructions, and select the proper landing path.

PA.IV.J.S5

Establish the recommended approach and landing configuration and airspeed, and adjust pitch attitude and power as required to maintain a stabilized approach.

PA.IV.J.S6

Maintain manufacturer’s published airspeed, or in its absence, not more than 1.3 VSO, +10/-5 knots.

PA.IV.J.S7

Make smooth, timely, and correct power and control adjustments to maintain proper pitch attitude and rate of descent to touchdown.

PA.IV.J.S8

Contact the water in the proper pitch attitude, and slow to idle taxi speed.

PA.IV.J.S9

Maintain crosswind correction and directional control throughout the approach and landing.

 

Task

K. Rough Water Takeoff and Climb (ASES, AMES)

References

FAA-H-8083-2

FAA-H-8083-23

POH/AFM

Objective

 

To determine that the applicant exhibits satisfactory knowledge, risk management, and skills associated with a rough water takeoff and climb.

Note: If a rough water condition does not exist, the applicant must be evaluated by simulating the Task.

Knowledge

The applicant demonstrates understanding of:

PA.IV.K.K1

Effects of atmospheric conditions, including wind, on takeoff and climb performance.

PA.IV.K.K2

VX and VY.

PA.IV.K.K3

Appropriate aircraft configuration.

PA.IV.K.K4

Appropriate use of rough water takeoff and climb technique.

Risk Management

The applicant demonstrates the ability to identify, assess and mitigate risks, encompassing:

PA.IV.K.R1

Selection of takeoff path based on pilot capability, aircraft performance and limitations, available distance, and wind.

PA.IV.K.R2

Effects of:

PA.IV.K.R2a

a. Crosswind

PA.IV.K.R2b

b. Wind shear

PA.IV.K.R2c

c. Tailwind

PA.IV.K.R2d

d. Wake turbulence

PA.IV.K.R2e

e. Water surface/condition

PA.IV.K.R3

Abnormal operations, to include planning for:

PA.IV.K.R3a

a. Rejected takeoff criteria

PA.IV.K.R3b

b. Engine failure in takeoff/climb phase of flight

PA.IV.K.R4

Collision hazards, to include aircraft, terrain, obstacles, wires, and vessels.

PA.IV.K.R5

Low altitude maneuvering/stall/spin.

PA.IV.K.R6

Distractions, loss of situational awareness, and/or improper task management.

PA.IV.K.R7

Failure to confirm gear position in an amphibious aircraft.

Skills

The applicant demonstrates the ability to:

PA.IV.K.S1

Complete the appropriate checklist.

PA.IV.K.S2

Make radio calls as appropriate.

PA.IV.K.S3

Verify assigned/correct takeoff path.

PA.IV.K.S4

Ascertain wind direction with or without visible wind direction indicators.

PA.IV.K.S5

Position flight controls and flaps for the existing conditions.

PA.IV.K.S6

Clear the area, select an appropriate takeoff path considering wind, swells, surface hazards and/or vessels.

PA.IV.K.S7

Retract the water rudders as appropriate; advance the throttle smoothly to takeoff power.

PA.IV.K.S8

Establish and maintain an appropriate planing attitude, directional control, and correct for porpoising, skipping, and increase in water drag.

PA.IV.K.S9

Lift off at minimum airspeed and accelerate to VY, +10/- 5 knots before leaving ground effect.

PA.IV.K.S10

Retract flaps after a positive rate of climb has been verified or in accordance with aircraft manufacturer’s guidance.

PA.IV.K.S11

Maintain VY +10/ 5 knots to a safe maneuvering altitude.

PA.IV.K.S12

Maintain directional control and proper wind-drift correction throughout takeoff and climb.

 

Task

L. Rough Water Approach and Landing (ASES, AMES)

References

FAA-H-8083-2

FAA-H-8083-23

POH/AFM

Objective

To determine that the applicant exhibits satisfactory knowledge, risk management, and skills associated with a rough water approach and landing.

Note: If a rough water condition does not exist, the applicant must be evaluated by simulating the Task.

Knowledge

The applicant demonstrates understanding of:

PA.IV.L.K1

A stabilized approach, to include energy management concepts.

PA.IV.L.K2

Effects of atmospheric conditions, including wind, on approach and landing performance.

PA.IV.L.K3

Wind correction techniques on approach and landing.

PA.IV.L.K4

When and why rough water techniques are used.

PA.IV.L.K5

How a rough water approach and landing is executed.

Risk Management

The applicant demonstrates the ability to identify, assess and mitigate risks, encompassing:

PA.IV.L.R1

Selection of approach path and touchdown area based on pilot capability, aircraft performance and limitations, available distance, and wind.

PA.IV.L.R2

Effects of:

PA.IV.L.R2a

a. Crosswind

PA.IV.L.R2b

b. Wind shear

PA.IV.L.R2c

c. Tailwind

PA.IV.L.R2d

d. Wake turbulence

PA.IV.L.R2e

e. Water surface/condition

PA.IV.L.R3

Abnormal operations, to include planning for rejected landing and go-around.

PA.IV.L.R4

Collision hazards, to include aircraft, terrain, obstacles, wires, and vessels.

PA.IV.L.R5

Low altitude maneuvering/stall/spin.

PA.IV.L.R6

Distractions, loss of situational awareness, and/or improper task management.

PA.IV.L.R7

Failure to confirm gear position in an amphibious aircraft.

Skills

The applicant demonstrates the ability to:

PA.IV.L.S1

Complete the appropriate checklist.

PA.IV.L.S2

Make radio calls as appropriate.

PA.IV.L.S3

Ensure the aircraft is aligned with the correct/assigned waterway.

PA.IV.L.S4

Scan the landing area for traffic and obstructions.

PA.IV.L.S5

Consider wind conditions, landing surface, obstructions, and select the proper landing path.

PA.IV.L.S6

Establish the recommended approach and landing configuration and airspeed, and adjust pitch attitude and power as required to maintain a stabilized approach.

PA.IV.L.S7

Maintain manufacturer’s published approach airspeed, or in its absence not more than 1.3 VSO +10/-5 knots with wind gust factor applied.

PA.IV.L.S8

Maintain crosswind correction and directional control throughout the approach and landing sequence.

PA.IV.L.S9

Make smooth, timely, and correct power and control adjustments to maintain proper pitch attitude and rate of descent to touchdown.

PA.IV.L.S10

Contact the water in the proper pitch attitude, considering the type of rough water.

 

Task

M. Forward Slip to a Landing (ASEL, ASES)

References

FAA-H-8083-2

FAA-H-8083-3

POH/AFM (specific to the training aircraft)

AIM

Objective

To determine that the applicant exhibits satisfactory knowledge, risk management, and skills associated with a forward slip to a landing.

Knowledge

The applicant demonstrates understanding of:

PA.IV.M.K1

Concepts of energy management during a forward slip approach.

PA.IV.M.K2

Effects of atmospheric conditions, including wind, on approach and landing performance.

PA.IV.M.K3

Wind correction techniques during forward slip.

PA.IV.M.K4

When and why a forward slip approach is used during an approach.

Risk Management

The applicant demonstrates the ability to identify, assess and mitigate risks, encompassing:

PA.IV.M.R1

Selection of runway or approach path and touchdown area based on pilot capability, aircraft performance and limitations, available distance, and wind.

PA.IV.M.R2

Effects of:

PA.IV.M.R2a

a. Crosswind

PA.IV.M.R2b

b. Wind shear

PA.IV.M.R2c

c. Tailwind

PA.IV.M.R2d

d. Wake turbulence.

PA.IV.M.R2e

e. Runway surface/condition

PA.IV.M.R3

Planning for go-around and rejected landing.

PA.IV.M.R4

Collision hazards, to include aircraft, vehicles, vessels, persons, wildlife, terrain, obstacles and wires.

PA.IV.M.R5

Low altitude maneuvering including stall, spin or CFIT.

PA.IV.M.R6

Distractions, loss of situational awareness, and/or improper task management.

PA.IV.M.R7

Forward slip operations, including fuel flowage, tail stalls with flaps, and lack of airspeed control.

PA.IV.M.R8 Surface contact with the airplane's longitudinal axis misaligned.
PA.IV.M.R9 Unstable approach.

Skills

The applicant demonstrates the ability to:

PA.IV.M.S1

Complete the appropriate checklist.

PA.IV.M.S2

Make radio calls as appropriate.

PA.IV.M.S3

Plan and follow a flightpath to the selected landing area considering altitude, wind, terrain, and obstructions.

PA.IV.M.S4

Select the most suitable touchdown point based on wind, landing surface, obstructions, and airplane limitations.

PA.IV.M.S5

Position airplane on downwind leg, parallel to landing runway.

PA.IV.M.S6

Configure the airplane correctly.

PA.IV.M.S7

As necessary, correlate crosswind with direction of forward slip and transition to side slip before touchdown.

PA.IV.M.S8

Touch down at a proper pitch attitude, within 400 feet beyond or on the specified point, with no side drift, and with the airplane's longitudinal axis aligned with and over the runway center/landing path.

PA.IV.M.S9 Maintain a ground track aligned with the runway center/landing path.

 

Task

N. Go-Around/Rejected Landing

References

FAA-H-8083-3

FAA-H-8083-23

POH/AFM (specific to the training aircraft)

AIM

Objective

To determine that the applicant exhibits satisfactory knowledge, risk management, and skills associated with a go-around/rejected landing with emphasis on factors that contribute to landing conditions that may require a go-around.

Knowledge

The applicant demonstrates understanding of:

PA.IV.N.K1

A stabilized approach, to include energy management concepts.

PA.IV.N.K2

Effects of atmospheric conditions, including wind and density altitude on a go-around or rejected landing.

PA.IV.N.K3

Wind correction techniques on takeoff/departure, and approach/landing.

Risk Management

The applicant demonstrates the ability to identify, assess and mitigate risks, encompassing:

PA.IV.N.R1

Delayed recognition of the need for a go-around/rejected landing.

PA.IV.N.R2

Delayed performance of go-around at low altitude.

PA.IV.N.R3

Improper application of power.

PA.IV.N.R4

Improper airplane configuration.

PA.IV.N.R5

Collision hazards, to include aircraft, vehicles, vessels, persons, wildlife, terrain, obstacles and wires.

PA.IV.N.R6

Low altitude maneuvering including stall, spin or CFIT.

PA.IV.N.R7

Distractions, loss of situational awareness, and/or improper task management.

Skills

The applicant demonstrates the ability to:

PA.IV.N.S1

Complete the appropriate checklist.

PA.IV.N.S2

Make radio calls as appropriate.

PA.IV.N.S3

Make a timely decision to discontinue the approach to landing.

PA.IV.N.S4

Apply takeoff power immediately and transition to climb pitch attitude for VX or VY as appropriate +10/-5 knots.

PA.IV.N.S5

Configure the airplane after a positive rate of climb has been verified or in accordance with airplane manufacturer's instructions.

PA.IV.N.S6

Maneuver to the side of the runway/landing area when necessary to clear and avoid conflicting traffic.

PA.IV.N.S7

Maintain VY +10/-5 knots to a safe maneuvering altitude.

PA.IV.N.S8

Maintain directional control and proper wind-drift correction throughout the climb.

Contact Me

Sarah Nilsson, JD, PhD, MAS

 

602 561 8665

 

sarah@sarahnilsson.org

 

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Legal disclaimer 

The information on this website is for educational purposes only and DOES NOT constitute legal advice. While the author of this website is an attorney, she is not your attorney, nor are you her client, until you enter into a written agreement with Nilsson Law, PLLC to provide legal services.

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