Sarah Nilsson, JD, PhD, MAS
Sarah Nilsson, JD, PhD, MAS

IX. Emergency Operations 

 

Task

A. Emergency Descent

References

FAA-H-8083-2

FAA-H-8083-3

POH/AFM (specific to the training aircraft)

Objective

To determine that the applicant exhibits satisfactory knowledge, risk management, and skills associated with an emergency descent.

Note: See Appendix 6: Safety of Flight.

Knowledge

The applicant demonstrates understanding of:

PA.IX.A.K1

Situations that require an emergency descent (e.g., depressurization, smoke, and/or engine fire).

PA.IX.A.K2

Immediate action items and emergency procedures.

PA.IX.A.K3

Airspeed, to include airspeed limitations.

Risk Management

The applicant demonstrates the ability to identify, assess and mitigate risks, encompassing:

PA.IX.A.R1

Failure to consider altitude, wind, terrain, obstructions, and available glide distance.

PA.IX.A.R2

Collision hazards, to include aircraft, terrain, obstacles, and wires.

PA.IX.A.R3

Improper airplane configuration.

PA.IX.A.R4

Distractions, loss of situational awareness, and/or improper task management.

Skills

The applicant demonstrates the ability to:

PA.IX.A.S1

Clear the area.

PA.IX.A.S2

Establish and maintain the appropriate airspeed and configuration appropriate to the scenario specified by the evaluator and as covered in POH/AFM for the emergency descent.

PA.IX.A.S3

Demonstrate orientation, division of attention and proper planning.

PA.IX.A.S4

Use bank angle between 30° and 45° to maintain positive load factors during the descent.

PA.IX.A.S5

Maintain appropriate airspeed +0/-10 knots, and level off at a specified altitude ±100 feet.

PA.IX.A.S6

Complete the appropriate checklist.

 

Task

B. Emergency Approach and Landing (Simulated) (ASEL, ASES)

References

FAA-H-8083-2

FAA-H-8083-3

POH/AFM (specific to the training aircraft)

Objective

To determine that the applicant exhibits satisfactory knowledge, risk management, and skills associated with emergency approach and landing procedures.

Note: See Appendix 6: Safety of Flight.

Knowledge

The applicant demonstrates understanding of:

PA.IX.B.K1

Immediate action items and emergency procedures.

PA.IX.B.K2

Airspeed, to include:

PA.IX.B.K2a

a. Importance of best glide speed and its relationship to distance

PA.IX.B.K2b

b. Difference between best glide speed and minimum sink speed

PA.IX.B.K2c

c. Effects of wind on glide distance

PA.IX.B.K3

Effects of atmospheric conditions on emergency approach and landing.

PA.IX.B.K4

A stabilized approach, to include energy management concepts.

PA.IX.B.K5

ELTs and other emergency locating devices.

PA.IX.B.K6

ATC services to aircraft in distress.

Risk Management

The applicant demonstrates the ability to identify, assess, and mitigate risks, encompassing:

PA.IX.B.R1

Failure to consider altitude, wind, terrain, obstructions, gliding distance, and available landing distance.

PA.IX.B.R2

Failure to plan and follow a flightpath to the selected landing area.

PA.IX.B.R3

Collision hazards, to include aircraft, terrain, obstacles, and wires.

PA.IX.B.R4

Improper airplane configuration.

PA.IX.B.R5

Low altitude maneuvering including stall, spin, or CFIT.

PA.IX.B.R6

Distractions, loss of situational awareness, and/or improper task management.

Skills

The applicant demonstrates the ability to:

PA.IX.B.S1

Establish and maintain the recommended best glide airspeed, ±10 knots.

PA.IX.B.S2

Configure the airplane in accordance with the POH/AFM and existing conditions.

PA.IX.B.S3

Select a suitable landing area considering altitude, wind, terrain, obstructions, and available glide distance.

PA.IX.B.S4

Plan and follow a flightpath to the selected landing area considering altitude, wind, terrain, and obstructions.

PA.IX.B.S5

Prepare for landing as specified by the evaluator.

PA.IX.B.S6

Complete the appropriate checklist.

 

Task

C. Systems and Equipment Malfunctions

References

FAA-H-8083-2

FAA-H-8083-3

POH/AFM (specific to the training aircraft)

Objective

To determine that the applicant exhibits satisfactory knowledge, risk management, and skills associated with system and equipment malfunctions appropriate to the airplane provided for the practical test and analyzing the situation and take appropriate action for simulated emergencies.

Knowledge

The applicant demonstrates understanding of:

PA.IX.C.K1

Partial or complete power loss related to the specific powerplant, including:

PA.IX.C.K1a

a. Engine roughness or overheat

PA.IX.C.K1b

b. Carburetor or induction icing

PA.IX.C.K1c

c. Loss of oil pressure

PA.IX.C.K1d

d. Fuel starvation

PA.IX.C.K2

System and equipment malfunctions specific to the airplane, including:

PA.IX.C.K2a

a. Electrical malfunction

PA.IX.C.K2b

b. Vacuum/pressure and associated flight instrument malfunctions

PA.IX.C.K2c

c. Pitot/static system malfunction

PA.IX.C.K2d

d. Electronic flight deck display malfunction

PA.IX.C.K2e

e. Landing gear or flap malfunction

PA.IX.C.K2f

f. Inoperative trim

PA.IX.C.K3

Smoke/fire/engine compartment fire.

PA.IX.C.K4

Any other system specific to the airplane (e.g., supplemental oxygen, deicing).

PA.IX.C.K5

Inadvertent door or window opening.

Risk Management

The applicant demonstrates the ability to identify, assess and mitigate risks, encompassing:

PA.IX.C.R1

Failure to use the proper checklist for a system or equipment malfunction.

PA.IX.C.R2

Distractions, loss of situational awareness, and/or improper task management.

Skills

The applicant demonstrates the ability to:

PA.IX.C.S1

Describe appropriate action for simulated emergencies specified by the evaluator, from at least three of the elements or sub-elements listed in K1 through K5 above.

PA.IX.C.S2

Complete the appropriate checklist.

 

Task

D. Emergency Equipment and Survival Gear

References

FAA-H-8083-2

FAA-H-8083-3

POH/AFM (specific to the training aircraft)

Objective

To determine that the applicant exhibits satisfactory knowledge, risk management, and skills associated with emergency equipment, and survival gear appropriate to the airplane and environment encountered during flight and identifying appropriate equipment that should be onboard the airplane.

Knowledge

The applicant demonstrates understanding of:

PA.IX.D.K1

Emergency Locator Transmitter (ELT) operations, limitations, and testing requirements.

PA.IX.D.K2

Fire extinguisher operations and limitations.

PA.IX.D.K3

Emergency equipment and survival gear needed for:

PA.IX.D.K3a

a. Climate extremes (hot/cold)

PA.IX.D.K3b

b. Mountainous terrain

PA.IX.D.K3c

c. Over water operations

Risk Management

The applicant demonstrates the ability to identify, assess and mitigate risks, encompassing:

PA.IX.D.R1

Failure to plan for basic needs (water, clothing, shelter) for 48 to 72 hours.

Skills

The applicant demonstrates the ability to:

PA.IX.D.S1

Identify appropriate equipment and personal gear.

PA.IX.D.S2

Brief passengers on proper use of on-board emergency equipment and survival gear.

 

Task

E. Engine Failure During Takeoff Before VMC (Simulated) (AMEL, AMES)

References

FAA-H-8083-2

FAA-H-8083-3

FAA-P-8740-66

POH/AFM

Objective

To determine that the applicant exhibits satisfactory knowledge, risk management, and skills associated with an engine failure during takeoff before VMC.

Note: See Appendix 6: Safety of Flight and Appendix 7: Aircraft, Equipment, and Operational Requirements & Limitations.

Knowledge

The applicant demonstrates understanding of:

PA.IX.E.K1

Factors affecting VMC.

PA.IX.E.K2

VMC (red line) and VYSE (blue line).

PA.IX.E.K3

Accelerate/stop distance.

Risk Management

The applicant demonstrates the ability to identify, assess and mitigate risks, encompassing:

PA.IX.E.R1

Failure to plan for engine failure during takeoff.

PA.IX.E.R2

Improper airplane configuration.

PA.IX.E.R3

Distractions, loss of situational awareness, and/or improper task management.

Skills

The applicant demonstrates the ability to:

PA.IX.E.S1

Close the throttles smoothly and promptly when a simulated engine failure occurs.

PA.IX.E.S2

Maintain directional control and apply brakes (AMEL), or flight controls (AMES), as necessary.

 

Task

F. Engine Failure After Liftoff (Simulated) (AMEL, AMES)

References

FAA-H-8083-2

FAA-H-8083-3

FAA-P-8740-66

POH/AFM

Objective

To determine that the applicant exhibits satisfactory knowledge, risk management, and skills associated with an engine failure after liftoff.

Note: See Appendix 6: Safety of Flight and Appendix 7: Aircraft, Equipment, and Operational Requirements & Limitations.

Knowledge

The applicant demonstrates understanding of:

PA.IX.F.K1

Factors affecting VMC.

PA.IX.F.K2

VMC (red line), VYSE (blue line), and VSSE (safe single-engine speed).

PA.IX.F.K3

Accelerate/stop and accelerate/go distances.

PA.IX.F.K4

How to identify, verify, feather, and secure an inoperative engine.

PA.IX.F.K5

Importance of drag reduction, to include propeller feathering, gear and flap retraction, the manufacturer’s recommended control input and its relation to zero sideslip.

PA.IX.F.K6

Simulated propeller feathering and the evaluator’s zero-thrust procedures and responsibilities.

Risk Management

The applicant demonstrates the ability to identify, assess and mitigate risks, encompassing:

PA.IX.F.R1

Failure to plan for engine failure after liftoff.

PA.IX.F.R2

Collision hazards, to include aircraft, terrain, obstacles, and wires.

PA.IX.F.R3

Improper airplane configuration.

PA.IX.F.R4

Low altitude maneuvering including stall, spin, or CFIT.

PA.IX.F.R5

Distractions, loss of situational awareness, and/or improper task management.

Skills

The applicant demonstrates the ability to:

PA.IX.F.S1

Promptly recognize an engine failure, maintain control, and utilize appropriate emergency procedures.

PA.IX.F.S2

Establish VYSE; if obstructions are present, establish VXSE or VMC +5 knots, whichever is greater, until obstructions are cleared. Then transition to VYSE.

PA.IX.F.S3

Reduce drag by retracting landing gear and flaps in accordance with the manufacturer’s guidance.

PA.IX.F.S4

Simulate feathering the propeller on the inoperative engine (evaluator should then establish zero thrust on the inoperative engine).

PA.IX.F.S5

Use flight controls in the proper combination as recommended by the manufacturer, or as required to maintain best performance, and trim as required.

PA.IX.F.S6

Monitor the operating engine and make adjustments as necessary.

PA.IX.F.S7

Recognize the airplane’s performance capabilities. If a climb is not possible at VYSE, maintain VYSE and return to the departure airport for landing, or initiate an approach to the most suitable landing area available.

PA.IX.F.S8

Simulate securing the inoperative engine.

PA.IX.F.S9

Maintain heading ±10° and airspeed ±5 knots.

PA.IX.F.S10

Complete the appropriate checklist.

 

Task

G. Approach and Landing with an Inoperative Engine (Simulated) (AMEL, AMES)

References

FAA-H-8083-2

FAA-H-8083-3

FAA-P-8740-66

POH/AFM

Objective

To determine that the applicant exhibits satisfactory knowledge, risk management, and skills associated with an approach and landing with an engine inoperative, including engine failure on final approach.

Note: See Appendix 6: Safety of Flight and Appendix 7: Aircraft, Equipment, and Operational Requirements & Limitations.

Knowledge

The applicant demonstrates understanding of:

PA.IX.G.K1

Factors affecting VMC.

PA.IX.G.K2

VMC (red line) and VYSE (blue line).

PA.IX.G.K3

How to identify, verify, feather, and secure an inoperative engine.

PA.IX.G.K4

Importance of drag reduction, to include propeller feathering, gear and flap retraction, the manufacturer’s recommended flight control input and its relation to zero sideslip.

PA.IX.G.K5

Applicant responsibilities during simulated feathering.

Risk Management

The applicant demonstrates the ability to identify, assess and mitigate risks, encompassing:

PA.IX.G.R1

Failure to plan for engine failure inflight or during an approach.

PA.IX.G.R2

Collision hazards, to include aircraft, terrain, obstacles, and wires.

PA.IX.G.R3

Improper airplane configuration.

PA.IX.G.R4

Low altitude maneuvering including stall, spin, or CFIT.

PA.IX.G.R5

Distractions, loss of situational awareness, and/or improper task management.

PA.IX.G.R6

Possible single-engine go-around.

Skills

The applicant demonstrates the ability to:

PA.IX.G.S1

Promptly recognize an engine failure and maintain positive airplane control. Set the engine controls, reduce drag, identify and verify the inoperative engine, and simulate feathering of the propeller on the inoperative engine. (Evaluator should then establish zero thrust on the inoperative engine).

PA.IX.G.S2

Use flight controls in the proper combination as recommended by the manufacturer or as required to maintain best performance, and trim as required.

PA.IX.G.S3

Follow the manufacturer’s recommended emergency procedures.

PA.IX.G.S4

Monitor the operating engine and make adjustments as necessary.

PA.IX.G.S5

Maintain the manufacturer’s recommended approach airspeed +10/-5 knots, in the landing configuration with a stabilized approach, until landing is assured.

PA.IX.G.S6

Make smooth, timely, and correct control application during round out and touchdown.

PA.IX.G.S7

Touch down on the first one-third of available runway/landing surface, with no drift, and the airplane’s longitudinal axis aligned with and over the runway center or landing path.

PA.IX.G.S8

Maintain crosswind correction and directional control throughout the approach and landing.

PA.IX.G.S9

Complete the appropriate checklist.

Contact Me

Sarah Nilsson, JD, PhD, MAS

 

602 561 8665

 

sarah@sarahnilsson.org

 

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The information on this website is for educational purposes only and DOES NOT constitute legal advice. While the author of this website is an attorney, she is not your attorney, nor are you her client, until you enter into a written agreement with Nilsson Law, PLLC to provide legal services.

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