Sarah Nilsson, JD, PhD, MAS
Sarah Nilsson, JD, PhD, MAS

VI. Navigation

 

Task

A. Pilotage and Dead Reckoning

References

14 CFR part 61

FAA-H-8083-2

FAA-H-8083-25

Navigation Charts

Objective

To determine that the applicant exhibits satisfactory knowledge, risk management, and skills associated with pilotage and dead reckoning.

Knowledge

The applicant demonstrates understanding of:

PA.VI.A.K1

Pilotage and dead reckoning.

PA.VI.A.K2

Magnetic compass errors.

PA.VI.A.K3

Topography.

PA.VI.A.K4

Selection of appropriate:

PA.VI.A.K4a

a. Route

PA.VI.A.K4b

b. Altitude(s)

PA.VI.A.K4c

c. Checkpoints

PA.VI.A.K5

Plotting a course, to include:

PA.VI.A.K5a

a. Determining heading, speed, and course

PA.VI.A.K5b

b. Wind correction angle

PA.VI.A.K5c

c. Estimating time, speed, and distance

PA.VI.A.K5d

d. True airspeed and density altitude

PA.VI.A.K6

Power setting selection.

PA.VI.A.K7

Planned versus actual flight plan calculations and required corrections.

Risk Management

The applicant demonstrates the ability to identify, assess and mitigate risks, encompassing:

PA.VI.A.R1

Collision hazards, to include aircraft, terrain, obstacles, and wires.

PA.VI.A.R2

Distractions, loss of situational awareness, and/or improper task management.

Skills

The applicant demonstrates the ability to:

PA.VI.A.S1

Prepare and use a flight log.

PA.VI.A.S2

Navigate by pilotage.

PA.VI.A.S3

Navigate by means of pre-computed headings, groundspeeds, and elapsed time.

PA.VI.A.S4

Demonstrate use of the magnetic direction indicator in navigation, to include turns to headings.

PA.VI.A.S5

Verify position within three nautical miles of the flight-planned route.

PA.VI.A.S6

Arrive at the en route checkpoints within five minutes of the initial or revised estimated time of arrival (ETA) and provide a destination estimate.

PA.VI.A.S7

Maintain the appropriate altitude, ±200 feet and heading, ±15°.

 

Task

B. Navigation Systems and Radar Services

References

FAA-H-8083-2

FAA-H-8083-3

FAA-H-8083-6

FAA-H-8083-25

AIM

Note: The evaluator should reference the manufacturer’s equipment supplement(s) as necessary.

Objective

To determine that the applicant exhibits satisfactory knowledge, risk management, and skills associated with navigation systems and radar services.

Knowledge

The applicant demonstrates understanding of:

PA.VI.B.K1

Ground-based navigation (orientation, course determination, equipment, tests, and regulations).

PA.VI.B.K2

Satellite-based navigation (e.g., equipment, regulations, database considerations, and limitations of satellite navigation).

PA.VI.B.K3

Radar assistance to VFR aircraft (e.g., operations, equipment, available services, traffic advisories).

PA.VI.B.K4

Transponder (Mode(s) A, C, and S).

Risk Management

The applicant demonstrates the ability to identify, assess and mitigate risks, encompassing:

PA.VI.B.R1

Failure to manage automated navigation and auto flight systems.

PA.VI.B.R2

Distractions, loss of situational awareness, and/or improper task management.

PA.VI.B.R3

Limitations of the navigation system in use.

PA.VI.B.R4

Loss of a navigation signal.

Skills

The applicant demonstrates the ability to:

PA.VI.B.S1

Use an airborne electronic navigation system.

PA.VI.B.S2

Determine the airplane’s position using the navigation system.

PA.VI.B.S3

Intercept and track a given course, radial, or bearing, as appropriate.

PA.VI.B.S4

Recognize and describe the indication of station or waypoint passage, if appropriate.

PA.VI.B.S5

Recognize signal loss or interference and take appropriate action, if applicable.

PA.VI.B.S6

Use proper communication procedures when utilizing radar services.

PA.VI.B.S7

Maintain the appropriate altitude ±200 feet and heading ±15°.

 

Task

C. Diversion

References

FAA-H-8083-2

FAA-H-8083-25

AIM

Navigation Charts

Objective

To determine that the applicant exhibits satisfactory knowledge, risk management, and skills associated with diversion.

Knowledge

The applicant demonstrates understanding of:

PA.VI.C.K1

Selecting an alternate destination.

PA.VI.C.K2

Situations that require deviations from flight plan and/or ATC instructions.

Risk Management

The applicant demonstrates the ability to identify, assess and mitigate risks, encompassing:

PA.VI.C.R1

Collision hazards, to include aircraft, terrain, obstacles, and wires.

PA.VI.C.R2

Distractions, loss of situational awareness, and/or improper task management.

PA.VI.C.R3

Failure to make a timely decision to divert.

PA.VI.C.R4

Failure to select an appropriate airport.

PA.VI.C.R5

Failure to utilize all available resources (e.g., automation, ATC, and flight deck planning aids).

Skills

The applicant demonstrates the ability to:

PA.VI.C.S1

Select a suitable airport and route for diversion.

PA.VI.C.S2

Make a reasonable estimate of heading, groundspeed, arrival time, and fuel consumption to the divert airport.

PA.VI.C.S3

Maintain the appropriate altitude ±200 feet and heading ±15°.

PA.VI.C.S4

Update/interpret weather in flight.

PA.VI.C.S5

Explain and use flight deck displays of digital weather and aeronautical information, as applicable.

 

Task

D. Lost Procedures

References

FAA-H-8083-2

FAA-H-8083-25

AIM

Navigation Charts

Objective

To determine that the applicant exhibits satisfactory knowledge, risk management, and skills associated with lost procedures and taking appropriate steps to achieve a satisfactory outcome if lost.

Knowledge

The applicant demonstrates understanding of:

PA.VI.D.K1

Methods to determine position.

PA.VI.D.K2

Assistance available if lost (e.g., radar services, communication procedures).

Risk Management

The applicant demonstrates the ability to identify, assess and mitigate risks, encompassing:

PA.VI.D.R1

Collision hazards, to include aircraft, terrain, obstacles, and wires.

PA.VI.D.R2

Distractions, loss of situational awareness, and/or improper task management.

PA.VI.D.R3

Failure to record times over waypoints.

PA.VI.D.R4

Failure to seek assistance or declare an emergency in a deteriorating situation.

Skills

The applicant demonstrates the ability to:

PA.VI.D.S1

Use an appropriate method to determine position.

PA.VI.D.S2

Maintain an appropriate heading and climb as necessary.

PA.VI.D.S3

Identify prominent landmarks.

PA.VI.D.S4

Use navigation systems/facilities and/or contact an ATC facility for assistance.

Contact Me

Sarah Nilsson, JD, PhD, MAS

 

602 561 8665

 

sarah@sarahnilsson.org

 

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Legal disclaimer 

The information on this website is for educational purposes only and DOES NOT constitute legal advice. While the author of this website is an attorney, she is not your attorney, nor are you her client, until you enter into a written agreement with Nilsson Law, PLLC to provide legal services.

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