Sarah Nilsson, JD, PhD, MAS
Sarah Nilsson, JD, PhD, MAS

UAG Test Prep 1                     Introduction and Regulations

Things to know about FAA Remote PIC Testing before you start studying

FAA's Remote Pilot Knowledge Test Guide - FAA-G-8082-20

For a summary of knowledge test eligibility requirements for this certification, refer to the FAA Airman Knowledge Testing Authorization Matrix

In accordance with the requirements of AC 107-2, and the aviation English Language proficiency requirements, you must accomplish the entire application process and testing procedures with sufficient fluency in the English language so that crew coordination and communication is never in doubt. Normal restatement of questions, as would be done for an applicant who is a native English speaker, is permitted and should not be deemed grounds for disqualification. 14 CFR 107 requires that pilots must be able to read, write, speak, and understand the English language.

Learning statements, as used in airman knowledge testing, refer to a measurable level of knowledge a student should be able to demonstrate as outlined in the appropriate ACS. Download the most current Learning Statement Reference Guide

Beyond serving as a useful reference in preparing for your airman knowledge test, the Learning Statement Reference Guide will assist you in interpreting any learning statement codes that may appear on your Airman Knowledge Test Report. You will receive a test report immediately upon completion of the test. This report will list learning statement codes for any questions you may have answered incorrectly. You should match the codes on the test report to the information in the Learning Statement Reference Guide in order to obtain the corresponding areas of knowledge deficiency. 

 

§ 107.63 Issuance of a remote pilot certificate with a small UAS rating

An applicant for a remote pilot certificate with a small UAS rating under this subpart must make the application in a form and manner acceptable to the Administrator.

(a) The application must include either:

(1) Evidence showing that the applicant passed an initial aeronautical knowledge test. If applying using a paper application, this evidence must be an airman knowledge test report showing passage of the knowledge test; or

(2) If a person holds a pilot certificate (other than a student pilot certificate) issued under part 61 of this chapter and meets the flight review requirements specified in § 61.56, a certificate of completion of a part 107 initial training course.

(b) If the application is being made pursuant to paragraph (a)(2) of this section:

(1) The application must be submitted to a Flight Standards District Office, a designated pilot examiner, an airman certification representative for a pilot school, a certificated flight instructor, or other person authorized by the Administrator;

(2) The person accepting the application submission must verify the identity of the applicant in a manner acceptable to the Administrator; and

(3) The person making the application must, by logbook endorsement or other manner acceptable to the Administrator, show the applicant meets the flight review requirements specified in § 61.56 of this chapter. 

 

Airman Certification Standards (ACS) for UAS

If the person holds a pilot certificate issued under part 61 and meets the recency requirements specified in section 61.56, the applicant must provide a certificate of completion of a part 107 initial training course. A qualifying initial training [online, takes 2 hours to complete] course is available at www.faasafety.gov [the FAA Safety Team Website]. The applicant must also show, via logbook entry or other method acceptable to the Administrator, that they meet the flight review requirements of section 61.56

 

Which of the following individuals may process an application for a part 107 remote pilot certificate with an sUAS rating?

(14 CFR part 107.63 and 61.56)

  • Remote Pilot in Command
  • Designated Pilot Examiner
  • Commercial Balloon Pilot

 

§ 107.64 Temporary Certificate 

(a) A temporary remote pilot certificate with a small UAS rating is issued for up to 120 calendar days, at which time a permanent certificate will be issued to a person whom the Administrator finds qualified under this part.

(b) A temporary remote pilot certificate with a small UAS rating expires:

(1) On the expiration date shown on the certificate;

(2) Upon receipt of the permanent certificate; or

(3) Upon receipt of a notice that the certificate sought is denied or revoked.

 

§ 107.67 Knowledge tests: General procedures and passing grades

(a) Knowledge tests prescribed by or under this part are given by persons and in the manner designated by the Administrator.

(b) An applicant for a knowledge test must have proper identification at the time of application that contains the applicant’s:

(1) Photograph;

(2) Signature;

(3) Date of birth, which shows the applicant meets or will meet the age requirements of this part for the certificate and rating sought before the expiration date of the airman knowledge test report; and

(4) Permanent mailing address. If the applicant’s permanent mailing address is a post office box number, then the applicant must also provide a current residential address.

(c) The minimum passing grade for the knowledge test will be specified by the Administrator.

 

 

Airman Certification Standards (ACS) for UAS

To verify your eligibility to take the knowledge test, you must meet the following in accordance with the requirements of AC 107:

An applicant to take the knowledge test must be at least 16 years of age.

A list of acceptable documents used to provide proper identification can be found in Advisory Circular 61-65, Certification: Pilots and Flight and Ground Instructors (as amended).

Achieving a score of 70% or better is required to be considered as satisfactorily passing the knowledge test for a Remote Pilot Certificate with a Small UAS Rating.

 

 

§ 107.69 Knowledge tests: Cheating or other unauthorized conduct

(a) An applicant for a knowledge test may not:

(1) Copy or intentionally remove any knowledge test;

(2) Give to another applicant or receive from another applicant any part or copy of a knowledge test;

(3) Give or receive assistance on a knowledge test during the period that test is being given;

(4) Take any part of a knowledge test on behalf of another person;

(5) Be represented by, or represent, another person for a knowledge test;

(6) Use any material or aid during the period that the test is being given, unless specifically authorized to do so by the Administrator; and

(7) Intentionally cause, assist, or participate in any act prohibited by this paragraph.

(b) An applicant who the Administrator finds has committed an act prohibited by paragraph (a) of this section is prohibited, for 1 year after the date of committing that act, from:

(1) Applying for any certificate, rating, or authorization issued under this chapter; and

(2) Applying for and taking any test under this chapter.

(c) Any certificate or rating held by an applicant may be suspended or revoked if the Administrator finds that person has committed an act prohibited by paragraph (a) of this section.

 

§ 107.71 Retesting after failure.  

An applicant for a knowledge test who fails that test may not reapply for the test for 14 calendar days after failing the test.

 

Airman Certification Standards (ACS) for UAS

An applicant retesting after failure is required to submit the applicable AKTR indicating failure to the testing center prior to retesting.

• No instructor endorsement or other form of written authorization is required to retest after failure.

• The original failed AKTR must be retained by the proctor and attached to the applicable daily log.

Note: If the testing center is approved for electronic filing, the proctor must: initial the AKTR within the embossed seal; file the AKTR IAW their AKT ODA Holders Procedures Manual; and destroy the AKTR. The proctor must verify the original failed AKTR has been successfully captured and stored prior to destruction.

If the applicant no longer possesses the AKTR, he or she may request a duplicate replacement issued by AFS-760.

 

UAG Sample Exam

Acceptable forms of retest authorization for the UAG test:

Original passing Airman Knowledge Test Report (AKTR).

NOTE: No instructor endorsement or other form of written authorization is required to retest.

Original expired AKTR.

Original failed AKTR.

NOTE 1: Requires a 14-day waiting period for retesting.

NOTE 2: An applicant retesting AFTER FAILURE is required to submit the applicable AKTR indicating failure to the testing center prior to retesting.

NOTE 3: No instructor endorsement or other form of written authorization is required to retest AFTER FAILURE.

NOTE 4: The original failed AKTR must be retained by the proctor and attached to the applicable daily log. 

 

§ 107.73 Initial and recurrent knowledge tests. 

(a) An initial aeronautical knowledge test covers the following areas of knowledge:

(1) Applicable regulations relating to small unmanned aircraft system rating privileges, limitations, and flight operation;

(2) Airspace classification, operating requirements, and flight restrictions affecting small unmanned aircraft operation;

(3) Aviation weather sources and effects of weather on small unmanned aircraft performance;

(4) Small unmanned aircraft loading;

(5) Emergency procedures;

(6) Crew resource management;

(7) Radio communication procedures;

(8) Determining the performance of small unmanned aircraft;

(9) Physiological effects of drugs and alcohol;

(10) Aeronautical decision-making and judgment;

(11) Airport operations; and

(12) Maintenance and preflight inspection procedures.

(b) A recurrent aeronautical knowledge test covers the following areas of knowledge:

(1) Applicable regulations relating to small unmanned aircraft system rating privileges, limitations, and flight operation;

(2) Airspace classification and operating requirements and flight restrictions affecting small unmanned aircraft operation;

(3) Emergency procedures;

(4) Crew resource management;

(5) Aeronautical decision-making and judgment;

(6) Airport operations; and

(7) Maintenance and preflight inspection procedures.

 

§ 107.74 Initial and recurrent training courses. 

(a) An initial training course covers the following areas of knowledge:

(1) Applicable regulations relating to small unmanned aircraft system rating privileges, limitations, and flight operation;

(2) Effects of weather on small unmanned aircraft performance;

(3) Small unmanned aircraft loading;

(4) Emergency procedures;

(5) Crew resource management;

(6) Determining the performance of small unmanned aircraft; and

(7) Maintenance and preflight inspection procedures.

(b) A recurrent training course covers the following areas of knowledge:

(1) Applicable regulations relating to small unmanned aircraft system rating privileges, limitations, and flight operation;

(2) Emergency procedures;

(3) Crew resource management; and

(4) Maintenance and preflight inspection procedures.

 

AC 107-2

6.4 Application Process. This paragraph provides guidance on how a person can apply for a remote pilot certificate.

6.4.1 Applicants Without Part 61 Certificates. A person who does not have a part 61 pilot certificate or a part 61 certificate holder who has not completed a part 61 flight review in the previous 24 calendar-months must use the following process. A part 61 pilot who has completed a flight review within the previous 24 calendar-months may elect to use this process.

1. Pass an initial aeronautical knowledge test administered at a KTC (see paragraph 6.6).

2. Complete the Remote Pilot Certificate and/or Rating Application for a remote pilot certificate (FAA Form 8710-13).

• Option 1 (Online Form): This is the fastest and simplest method. The FAA Form 8710-13 application should be completed online using the electronic FAA Integrated Airmen Certificate and/or Rating Application (IACRA) system. The applicant must have already passed an initial aeronautical knowledge test. Once registered with IACRA, he or she will login with their username and password. Click on “Start New Application” and,

1) Application Type “Pilot”, 2) Certifications “Remote Pilot,” 3) “Other Path Information,” and 4) “Start Application.” Continue through the application process and, when prompted, the applicant will enter the 17-digit Knowledge Test Exam ID from the knowledge test in IACRA. It may take up to 48 hours from the test date for the knowledge test to appear in IACRA. The KTC test proctor will be the one that verified the identity of the applicant. Once the applicant completes the online application in IACRA, he or she will sign the application electronically and submit it to the Airman Registry for processing. No FAA representative will be required to sign the application if the applicant was able to self-certify.

Note: When the applicant uses this online option, the application will be transmitted electronically from the applicant to the Airman Registry. The only electronic signature that will be reflected on the IACRA application will be the applicant’s. The applicant will then receive a confirmation email once his or her application has completed the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) vetting process. The email will provide information that will allow the applicant to log into the IACRA system and print a copy of the temporary certificate.

• Option 2 (Paper Application): An applicant could also submit a paper application. If the applicant chooses the paper method, the original initial aeronautical knowledge test report must be mailed with the application to the following address:

DOT/FAA

Airmen Certification Branch (AFS-760)

P.O. Box 25082

Oklahoma City, OK 73125

Note: A temporary airman certificate will not be provided to the remote pilot applicant if they do not hold a part 61 certificate. For this reason, it would be of the applicant’s best interest to utilize Option 1 (IACRA system) instead of the paper method, in order to receive a temporary airman certificate once the application has completed the TSA vetting process.

3. Receive permanent remote pilot certificate once all other FAA internal processing is complete.

6.4.2 Applicants with Part 61 Certificates. Instead of the process described above, a person who holds a part 61 pilot certificate, except a student pilot certificate, and has completed a flight review within the previous 24 calendar-months may elect to apply using the following process:

1. Complete the online course (Part 107 small Unmanned Aircraft Systems (sUAS), ALC-451) located within the FAA Safety Team (FAASTeam) Web site and receive a completion certificate.

2. Complete the Remote Pilot Certificate and/or Rating Application for a remote pilot certificate (FAA Form 8710-13).

• Option 1 (Online Application): In almost all cases, the application should be completed online using the electronic FAA IACRA system. The applicant must include verification that he or she completed the online course or passed an initial aeronautical knowledge test. The applicable official document(s) must be uploaded into IACRA either by the applicant or the certifying officer.

• Option 2 (Paper): The application may be completed on paper. Using this method, the certificate of completion for the online course or original initial aeronautical knowledge test report must be included with the application. Please note that the processing time will be increased if a paper application is used.

3. Contact a FSDO, an FAA DPE, an ACR, or an FAA CFI to make an appointment to validate the applicant’s identification. The applicant must present the completed FAA Form 8710-13 along with the online course completion certificate or knowledge test report (as applicable) and proof of a current flight review. The FAA Form 8710-13 application will be signed by the applicant after the FSDO, DPE, ACR, or CFI examines the applicant’s photo identification and verifies the applicant’s identity. The FAA representative will then sign the application. The identification presented must include a photograph of the applicant, the applicant’s signature, and the applicant’s actual residential address (if different from the mailing address). This information may be presented in more than one form of identification. Acceptable methods of identification include, but are not limited to U.S. drivers’ licenses, government identification cards, passports, and military identification cards (refer to AC 61-65). If using paper or IACRA method, an appropriate FSDO representative, a DPE, or an ACR will issue the applicant a temporary airman certificate.

Note: A CFI is not authorized to issue a temporary certificate. They can process applications for applicants who do not need a temporary certificate. If using IACRA and the applicant is utilizing a CFI as the FAA representative, the applicant can print their own temporary airman certificate after receiving an email from the FAA notifying them that it is available. If using the paper method and the applicant is utilizing a CFI as the FAA representative, the applicant will not be issued a temporary airman certificate. Once the FSDO has signed and approved the application, it will be mailed to the Registry for the issuance of the permanent certificate.

4. Receive permanent remote pilot certificate once all other FAA internal processing is complete.

 

AC 107-2

6.6 Aeronautical Knowledge Tests (Initial and Recurrent). It is important to have and retain the knowledge necessary to operate a small UA in the NAS. This aeronautical knowledge can be obtained through self-study, taking an online training course, taking an in-person training course, or any combination thereof. The FAA has published the Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems Airman Certification Standard FAA-S-ACS-10 

Note: The below information regarding initial and recurrent knowledge tests apply to persons who do not hold a current part 61 airman certificate.

6.6.1 Initial Test. As described in paragraph 6.4, a person applying for remote pilot certificate with an sUAS rating must pass an initial aeronautical knowledge test given by an FAA-approved KTC. The initial knowledge test will cover the aeronautical knowledge areas listed below:

1. Applicable regulations relating to sUAS rating privileges, limitations, and flight operation;

2. Airspace classification and operating requirements, and flight restrictions affecting small UA operation;

3. Aviation weather sources and effects of weather on small UA performance;

4. Small UA loading and performance;

5. Emergency procedures;

6. Crew Resource Management (CRM);

7. Radio communication procedures;

8. Determining the performance of small UA;

9. Physiological effects of drugs and alcohol

10. Aeronautical Decision-making (ADM) and judgment;

11. Airport operations; and

12. Maintenance and preflight inspection procedures.

6.6.1.1 A part 61 certificate holder who has completed a flight review within the previous 24 calendar-months may complete an initial online training course instead of taking the knowledge test

(see paragraph 6.7).

6.6.1.2 Additional information on some of the knowledge areas listed above can be found in Appendix B.

6.6.2 Recurrent Test. After a person receives a remote pilot certificate with an sUAS rating, that person must retain and periodically update the required aeronautical knowledge to continue to operate a small UA in the NAS. To continue exercising the privileges of a remote pilot certificate, the certificate holder must pass a recurrent aeronautical knowledge test within 24 calendar-months of passing either an initial or recurrent aeronautical knowledge test. A part 61 pilot certificate holder who has completed a flight review within the previous 24 calendar-months may complete a recurrent online training course instead of taking the knowledge test.

6.6.2.1 Figure 6-1, Recurrent Test Cycle Examples, illustrates an individual’s possible renewal cycles.

6.6.2.2 The recurrent aeronautical knowledge test areas are as follows:

1. Applicable regulations relating to sUAS rating privileges, limitations, and flight operation;

2. Airspace classification and operating requirements and flight restrictions affecting small UA operation;

3. Emergency procedures;

4. CRM;

5. ADM and judgment;

6. Airport operations; and

7. Maintenance and preflight inspection procedures.

6.6.3 Test Providers. KTCs will administer initial and recurrent examinations provided by the FAA. In order to take an aeronautical knowledge test, an applicant will be required to schedule an appointment with the KTC providing proper government-issued photo identification to the KTC on the day of scheduled testing. The location of the closest KTC can be found at Test Providers 

 

AC 107-2

6.7 Aeronautical Knowledge Training Course (Initial and Recurrent). This section is applicable only to persons who hold a part 61 airman certificate, other than a student pilot certificate, and have a current flight review.

6.7.1 Initial Training Course. As described in paragraph 6.4, a pilot applying for a remote pilot certificate may complete an initial training course instead of the knowledge test. The training course can be taken online at https://www.faasafety.gov

The initial training course will cover the aeronautical knowledge areas listed below:

1. Applicable regulations relating to sUAS rating privileges, limitations, and flight operation;

2. Effects of weather on small UA performance;

3.  Small UA loading and performance;

4. Emergency procedures;

5. CRM;

6. Determining the performance of small UA; and

7. Maintenance and preflight inspection procedures.

Note: Additional information on some of the knowledge areas listed above can be found in Appendix B.

6.7.2 Recurrent Training Course. After a pilot receives a remote pilot certificate with an sUAS rating, that person must retain and periodically update the required aeronautical knowledge to continue to operate a small UA in the NAS. As a renewal process, the remote pilot must complete either a recurrent training course or a recurrent knowledge test within 24 calendar-months of passing either an initial or recurrent aeronautical knowledge test.  

Figure 6-2, Recurrent Training Course Cycle Examples, illustrates an individual’s possible renewal cycles.

6.7.2.1 The recurrent training course areas are as follows:

1. Applicable regulations relating to sUAS rating privileges, limitations, and flight operation;

2. Emergency procedures;

3. CRM; and

4. Maintenance and preflight inspection procedures. 

 

After receiving a part 107 remote pilot certificate with an sUAS rating, how often must you satisfy recurrent training requirements?

(14 CFR part 107.63 and 107.65, AC 107, small UAS, as amended)

  • Every 12 months
  • Every 24 months
  • Every 6 months

§ 107.77 Change of name or address.  

(a) Change of Name. An application to change the name on a certificate issued under this subpart must be accompanied by the applicant's:

(1) Remote pilot certificate with small UAS rating; and

(2) A copy of the marriage license, court order, or other document verifying the name change.

(b) The documents in paragraph (a) of this section will be returned to the applicant after inspection.

(c) Change of address. The holder of a remote pilot certificate with small UAS rating issued under this subpart who has made a change in permanent mailing address may not, after 30 days from that date, exercise the privileges of the certificate unless the holder has notified the FAA of the change in address using one of the following methods:

(1) By letter to the FAA Airman Certification Branch, P.O. Box 25082, Oklahoma City, OK 73125 providing the new permanent mailing address, or if the permanent mailing address includes a post office box number, then the holder's current residential address; or

(2) By using the FAA website portal at www.faa.gov providing the new permanent mailing address, or if the permanent mailing address includes a post office box number, then the holder's current residential address.

 

§ 107.79 Voluntary surrender of certificate

(a) The holder of a certificate issued under this subpart may voluntarily surrender it for cancellation.

(b) Any request made under paragraph (a) of this section must include the following signed statement or its equivalent: “I voluntarily surrender my remote pilot certificate with a small UAS rating for cancellation. This request is made for my own reasons, with full knowledge that my certificate will not be reissued to me unless I again complete the requirements specified in §§ 107.61 and 107.63.”

 

Airman Certification Standards (ACS) for UAS 

Knowledge Test Centers

The FAA authorizes hundreds of knowledge testing center locations that offer a full range of airman knowledge tests. For information on authorized testing centers and to register for the knowledge test, contact one of the providers listed at http://www.faa.gov/Authorized Testing Centers

Knowledge Test Registration

When you contact a knowledge testing center to register for a test, please be prepared to select a test date, choose a testing center, and make financial arrangements for test payment when you call. You may register for test(s) several weeks in advance, and you may cancel in accordance with the testing center’s cancellation policy.

 

Airman Certification Standards (ACS) for UAS

Appendix 2: Knowledge Test Procedures and Tips for more information on testing accomodations and acceptable materials brought to the test

 

Executive Summary to Part 107:

Estimated out-of-pocket cost for an individual to become FAA certificated as a remote pilot with a small UAS rating is $150, which is less than the cost of any other airman certification that allows non-recreational operations in the NAS

 

AC 107-2

6.5 Security Disqualification. After the FAA receives the application, the TSA will automatically conduct a background security screening of the applicant prior to issuance of a remote pilot certificate. If the security screening is successful, the FAA will issue a permanent remote pilot certificate. If the security screening is not successful, the applicant will be disqualified and a temporary pilot certificate will not be issued. Individuals who believe that they improperly failed a security threat assessment may appeal the decision to the TSA.

 

AC 107-2

Privacy-Related Laws. Part 107 operators should be aware that state and local authorities may enact privacy-related laws specific to Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) operations. The FAA encourages sUAS operators to review those laws prior to operating their UAS. The National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) has also published the Voluntary Best Practices for UAS Privacy, Transparency, and Accountability.

This document outlines and describes voluntary best practices that UAS operators could take to advance UAS privacy, transparency, and accountability for the private and commercial use of UAS.

 

Now that you have had an overview of the topics on this knowledge test as well as the testing process itself, it is time to begin the study work.

Note the coding in parentheses for each of the knowledge elements above.

I have categorized the pertinent study material using these codes.

Also note that above each paragraph of knowledge material I have hyperlinked the source.

Start reading, making notes, assimilating, do whatever aids your recall.

Have fun and enjoy the ride!

The applicability of 14 CFR Part 107 to small unmanned aircraft operations (UA.I.A.K1)

Subpart A—General § 107.1 Applicability.

(a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, this part applies to the registration, airman certification, and operation of civil small unmanned aircraft systems within the United States.

(b) This part does not apply to the following:

(1) Air carrier operations;

(2) Any aircraft subject to the provisions of part 101 of this chapter; or

(3) Any operation that a remote pilot in command elects to conduct pursuant to an exemption issued under section 333 of Public Law 112-95, unless otherwise specified in the exemption. 

 

AC 107-2 CHAPTER 4. PART 107 SUBPART A, GENERAL

4.1 Applicability. This chapter provides guidance regarding the applicability of part 107 to civil small UA operations conducted within the NAS. However, part 107 does not apply to the following:

1. Model aircraft that are operated in accordance with part 101 subpart E, Model Aircraft), which applies to model aircraft meeting all of the following criteria:

• The aircraft is flown strictly for hobby or recreational use;

• The aircraft is operated in accordance with a community-based set of safety guidelines and within the programming of a nationwide community-based organization;

• The aircraft is limited to not more than 55 pounds unless otherwise certified through a design, construction, inspection, flight test, and operational safety program administered by a community-based organization;

• The aircraft is operated in a manner that does not interfere with and gives way to any manned aircraft;

• When flown within 5 miles of an airport, the operator of the aircraft provides the airport operator and the airport air traffic control (ATC) tower (when an air traffic facility is located at the airport) with prior notice of the operation;

• The aircraft is capable of sustained flight in the atmosphere; and

• The aircraft is flown within Visual Line of Sight (VLOS) of the person operating the aircraft.

2. Operations conducted outside the United States;

3. Amateur rockets;

4. Moored balloons;

5. Unmanned free balloons;

6. Kites;

7. Public aircraft operations; and

8. Air carrier operations.

 

FSIMS refers to Public Law (PL) 112-95 Section 333 exemptions as 14 CFR Part 11 grants of exemption, and model aircraft operations fall under 14 CFR Part 101 subpart E

 

Which of the following operations would be regulated by 14 CFR part 107?

(14 CFR parts 101.41 and 107.1)

  • Flying for enjoyment with family and friends
  • Operating your sUAS for an imagery company
  • Conducting public operations during a search mission

 

Unmanned aircraft means an aircraft operated

(14 CFR parts 107.1 and 107.3, AC 107, small UAS, as amended)

  • Without the possibility of direct human intervention from within or on the aircraft
  • For hobby and recreational use when not certificated
  • During search and rescue operations other than public

 

According to 14 CFR part 107, an sUAS is an unmanned aircraft system weighing

(14 CFR parts 107.1 and 107.3, AC 107, small UAS, as amended)

  • 55kg or less
  • 55lbs or less
  • less than 55lbs

Definitions used in 14 CFR Part 107 (UA.I.A.K2)

§ 107.3 Definitions.  

The following definitions apply to this part. If there is a conflict between the definitions of this part and definitions specified in § 1.1 of this chapter, the definitions in this part control for purposes of this part: 

Control station means an interface used by the remote pilot to control the flight path of the small unmanned aircraft.

Corrective lenses means spectacles or contact lenses.

Small unmanned aircraft means an unmanned aircraft weighing less than 55 pounds on takeoff, including everything that is on board or otherwise attached to the aircraft.

Small unmanned aircraft system (small UAS) means a small unmanned aircraft and its associated elements (including communication links and the components that control the small unmanned aircraft) that are required for the safe and efficient operation of the small unmanned aircraft in the national airspace system.

Unmanned aircraft means an aircraft operated without the possibility of direct human intervention from within or on the aircraft.

Visual observer means a person who is designated by the remote pilot in command to assist the remote pilot in command and the person manipulating the flight controls of the small UAS to see and avoid other air traffic or objects aloft or on the ground.

 

AC 107-2 CHAPTER 4. PART 107 SUBPART A, GENERAL

4.2 Definitions. The following defined terms are used throughout this AC:

4.2.1 Control Station (CS). An interface used by the remote pilot or the person manipulating the controls to control the flight path of the small UA.

4.2.2 Corrective Lenses. Spectacles or contact lenses.

4.2.3 Model Aircraft. A UA that is:

• Capable of sustained flight in the atmosphere;

• Flown within VLOS of the person operating the aircraft; and

• Flown for hobby or recreational purposes.

4.2.4 Person Manipulating the Controls. A person other than the remote pilot in command (PIC) who is controlling the flight of an sUAS under the supervision of the remote PIC.

4.2.5 Remote Pilot in Command (Remote PIC or Remote Pilot). A person who holds a remote pilot certificate with an sUAS rating and has the final authority and responsibility for the operation and safety of an sUAS operation conducted under part 107.

4.2.6 Small Unmanned Aircraft (UA). A UA weighing less than 55 pounds, including everything that is onboard or otherwise attached to the aircraft, and can be flown without the possibility of direct human intervention from within or on the aircraft.

4.2.7 Small Unmanned Aircraft System (sUAS). A small UA and its associated elements (including communication links and the components that control the small UA) that are required for the safe and efficient operation of the small UA in the NAS.

4.2.8 Unmanned Aircraft (UA). An aircraft operated without the possibility of direct human intervention from within or on the aircraft.

4.2.9 Visual Observer (VO). A person acting as a flightcrew member who assists the small UA remote PIC and the person manipulating the controls to see and avoid other air traffic or objects aloft or on the ground. 

 

FSIMS

16-1-2-1    DEFINITIONS. The following definitions are used by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and many Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) organizations to describe relevant differences between UAS operations and those of manned aircraft. Other organizations, such as the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) and RTCA, Inc., have also developed acronyms and definitions that may differ from those used by the FAA.

Aircraft. A device that is used or intended to be used for flight in the air.

Airworthy/Airworthiness. Means that the UAS conforms to its type certificate (TC), if applicable, or has been determined to be in a condition for safe operation.

Airworthiness Statement. Letter from a public UAS applicant specifying self-certification of a UAS in compliance with the criteria of the public entity.

Beyond Visual Line of Sight (BVLOS). Means flightcrew members (i.e., remote pilot in command (PIC), the person manipulating the controls, and visual observer (VO), if used) are not capable of seeing the aircraft with vision unaided by any device other than corrective lenses (spectacles and contact lenses).

Certificate of Waiver (CoW); Certificate of Authorization (CoA). The terms “certificate of waiver” and “certificate of authorization” mean a FAA grant of approval for a specific flight operation.

Chase Aircraft. A manned aircraft that carries its own PIC and a separate qualified VO flying in proximity to an unmanned aircraft (UA).

Civil Aircraft. Aircraft other than public or model (Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR part 101) aircraft.

Civil Twilight. The period of time that begins 30 minutes before official sunrise and ends at official sunrise; and the period of time that begins at official sunset and ends 30 minutes after official sunset. In Alaska, the period of civil twilight is defined in the Air Almanac.

Control Station. An interface used by the remote pilot to control the flightpath of the small UA. The structure or system (ground, ship, or air-based) that controls the UAS and its interface to the aircraft and external systems.

Cooperative Aircraft. Aircraft that have an electronic means of identification (i.e., a transponder or Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) transceiver) aboard in operation.

Corrective Lenses. Means spectacles or contact lenses.

Crewmember (UAS). A person assigned to perform an operational duty during operations. A UAS crewmember includes the remote PIC, person manipulating the controls, and VOs, but may include other persons as appropriate or required to ensure safe operation of the UAS.

Crew Resource Management (CRM). The effective use of all available resources including human, hardware, software, and information resources.

Daisy-Chaining. The use of multiple, successive VOs to extend the flight of a UA beyond the direct Visual Line of Sight (VLOS) of the PIC or VO.

Data Link. A wireless communication channel between one control station and one UA. Its utility may include, but is not limited to, uplink Command and Control (C2) data, downlink telemetry, and payload data. A data link may consist of the following types:

1)    Uplink: The transmittal of data from the control station to the UA.

2)    Downlink: The transmittal of data from the UA to the control station.

Direct Control. The capability of a remote pilot to manipulate the flight control surfaces of the aircraft in a direct fashion using, for example, a radio control box with joystick or a ground control station using conventional type aircraft controls (such as a yoke/stick, rudder pedals, power levers, and other ancillary controls). This infers a one-to-one correspondence between control input and flight control surface deflection.

External Pilot. A remote pilot who controls the UA from outside of an enclosure.

FAA-Recognized Equivalent. FAA recognition that a public agency may exercise its own internal processes regarding airworthiness and pilot, aircrew, and maintenance personnel certification and training, and the agency has determined that its UAS are capable of safe operation in the National Airspace System (NAS) when conducting public aircraft operations under Title 49 of the United States Code (49 U.S.C.) §§ 40102(a)(41) and 40125.

Flight Termination. The intentional and deliberate process of terminating the flight in the event of lost link, loss of control, or other failure that compromises the safety of flight.

Flyaway. An interruption or loss of the control link, or when the pilot is unable to effect control of the aircraft and, as a result, the UA is not operating in a predicable or planned manner because lost link procedures are not established or are not being executed by the UA.

Formation Flight. Formation flying is the disciplined flight of two or more aircraft under the command of a flight leader in either standard or nonstandard formation.

Indirect Control. The capability of a remote pilot to affect the trajectory of the aircraft through computer input to an onboard flight control system.

Internal Pilot. A remote PIC who flies from inside an enclosure and does not have VLOS with the aircraft.

Lost Link. An interruption or loss of positive control between the control station and UA. or when the pilot is unable to effect control of the aircraft. Lost link is not considered a flyaway.

Lost Link Procedures. Preprogrammed or predetermined mitigations to ensure the continued safe operations of the UA in the event of lost link. In the event positive link cannot be achieved, flight termination must be implemented.

Model Aircraft. Means a UA that is:

  1. Capable of sustained flight in the atmosphere;
  2. Flown within VLOS of the person operating the aircraft; and
  3. Flown exclusively for hobby or recreational purposes.

Nationwide Community-Based Organization. Means, in part, a “membership based association that represents the aeromodeling community within the Unites States; [and] provides its members a comprehensive set of safety guidelines that underscores safe aeromodeling operations within the NAS and the protection and safety of the general public on the ground.”

Non-Cooperative Aircraft. Aircraft that do not have an electronic means of identification (e.g., a transponder) aboard or that have inoperative equipment because of malfunction or deliberate action.

Off-Airport. Any location used to launch or recover aircraft that is not considered an airport (e.g., an open field).

Optionally Piloted Aircraft (OPA). A manned aircraft that can be controlled by a remote pilot from a location not onboard the aircraft. An aircraft having UAS technology and retains the capability of being flown by a Pilot Onboard (PO) using conventional control methods.

Person Manipulating the Controls. A person who is controlling an sUAS under the direct supervision of a remote PIC.

Remote Pilot in Command Certification (Remote PIC). A person who holds a remote pilot certificate with a small Unmanned Aircraft Systems (sUAS) rating and has the final authority and responsibility for the operation and safety of an sUAS operation conducted under 14 CFR part 107.

Public Aircraft. Title 49 U.S.C. § 40102(a)(41) provides the definition of “Public Aircraft” and § 40125 provides the qualifications for public aircraft status.

Safety Risk Management (SRM). A formalized, proactive approach to system safety. SRM is a methodology that ensures hazards are identified; risks are analyzed, assessed, and prioritized; and results are documented for decisionmakers to transfer, eliminate, accept, or mitigate risk.

Scheduled Maintenance (Routine). The performance of maintenance tasks at prescribed intervals.

Small Unmanned Aircraft. A UA weighing less than 55 pounds on takeoff, including everything that is onboard or otherwise attached to the aircraft.

Small Unmanned Aircraft System (sUAS). A small UA and its associated elements (including communication links and the components that control the small UA) that are required for the safe and efficient operation of the small UA in the NAS (including launch and recovery systems and equipment).

Special Airworthiness Certificates. Means a “special airworthiness certificate” used for all aircraft that are certificated in categories other than standard.

Tethered UAS. A UA that is restrained by a cable and attached to the ground or an object thereon.

Unmanned Aircraft (UA). Means an aircraft that is operated without the possibility of direct human intervention from within or on the aircraft.

Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS). A UA and associated elements (including communication links and the components that control the UA) that are required for the remote PIC to operate safely and efficiently in the NAS.

Unscheduled Maintenance (Nonroutine). The performance of maintenance tasks when mechanical irregularities occur.

Visual Line of Sight (VLOS). Means that any flightcrew member (i.e., remote PIC, the person manipulating the controls, and visual observer, if used) is capable of seeing the aircraft with vision unaided by any device other than corrective lenses, spectacles or contact lenses in order to know the UA’s location, determine the UA’s attitude, altitude, and direction of flight, observe the airspace for other air traffic or hazards, and determine that the UA does not endanger the life or property of another.

Visual Observer (VO). A person who is designated by the PIC to assist the remote PIC and the person manipulating the flight controls of the sUAS to supplement situational awareness and Visual Line of Sight (VLOS), assisting with seeing and avoiding other air traffic or objects aloft or on the ground. The visual observer (VO) must be able to effectively communicate:

1)    The small UA location, attitude, and direction of flight;

2)    The position of other aircraft or hazards in the airspace; and

3)    The determination that the UA does not endanger the life or property of another. 

Flashcards can be found below that will help you study:

Set A

Set B

The ramification of falsification, reproduction or alteration of a certificate, rating, authorization, record, or report  (UA.I.A.K3)

§ 107.5 Falsification, reproduction or alteration. 

(a) No person may make or cause to be made—

(1) Any fraudulent or intentionally false record or report that is required to be made, kept, or used to show compliance with any requirement under this part.

(2) Any reproduction or alteration, for fraudulent purpose, of any certificate, rating, authorization, record or report under this part.

(b) The commission by any person of an act prohibited under paragraph (a) of this section is a basis for any of the following:

(1) Denial of an application for a remote pilot certificate or a certificate of waiver,

(2) Suspension or revocation of any certificate or waiver issued by the Administrator under this part and held by that person; or

(3) A civil penalty.

 

AC 107-2 CHAPTER 4. PART 107 SUBPART A, GENERAL

4.4 Falsification, Reproduction, or Alteration. The FAA relies on information provided by owners and remote pilots of sUAS when it authorizes operations or when it has to make a compliance determination. Accordingly, the FAA may take appropriate action against an sUAS owner, operator, remote PIC, or anyone else who fraudulently or knowingly provides false records or reports, or otherwise reproduces or alters any records, reports, or other information for fraudulent purposes. Such action could include civil sanctions and the suspension or revocation of a certificate or waiver.

 

Accident Reporting (UA.I.A.K4)

§ 107.9 Accident reporting.  

No later than 10 calendar days after an operation that meets the criteria of either paragraph (a) or (b) of this section, a remote pilot in command must report to the FAA, in a manner acceptable to the Administrator, any operation of the small unmanned aircraft involving at least:

(a) Serious injury to any person or any loss of consciousness; or

(b) Damage to any property, other than the small unmanned aircraft, unless one of the following conditions is satisfied:

(1) The cost of repair (including materials and labor) does not exceed $500; or

(2) The fair market value of the property does not exceed $500 in the event of total loss.

 

AC 107-2 CHAPTER 4. PART 107 SUBPART A, GENERAL

4.5 Accident Reporting. The remote PIC of the sUAS is required to report an accident to the FAA within 10 days if it meets any of the following thresholds:

1. At least serious injury to any person or any loss of consciousness. A serious injury is an injury that qualifies as Level 3 or higher on the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) of the Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine (AAAM). The AIS is an anatomical scoring system that provides a means of ranking the severity of an injury and is widely used by emergency medical personnel. Within the AIS system, injuries are ranked on a scale of 1 to 6, with Level 1 being a minor injury, Level 2 is moderate, Level 3 is serious, Level 4 is severe, Level 5 is critical, and Level 6 is a nonsurvivable injury. The FAA currently uses serious injury (AIS Level 3) as an injury threshold in other FAA regulations.

Note: It would be considered a “serious injury” if a person requires hospitalization, but the injury is fully reversible (including, but not limited to, head trauma, broken bone(s), or laceration(s) to the skin that requires suturing).

2. Damage to any property, other than the small UA, if the cost is greater than $500 to repair or replace the property (whichever is lower).

Note: For example, a small UA damages a property whose fair market value is

$200, and it would cost $600 to repair the damage. Because the fair market value is below $500, this accident is not required to be reported. Similarly, if the aircraft causes $200 worth of damage to property whose fair market value is $600, that accident is also not required to be reported because the repair cost is below $500.

4.5.1 Submitting the Report. The accident report must be made within 10 calendar-days of the operation that created the injury or damage. The report may be submitted to the appropriate FAA Regional Operations Center (ROC) electronically or by telephone. Electronic reporting can be completed at www.faa.gov/uas/. To make a report by phone, see Figure 4-1, FAA Regional Operations Centers Telephone List. Reports may also be made to the nearest jurisdictional FSDO. The report should include the following information:

1. sUAS remote PIC’s name and contact information;

2. sUAS remote PIC’s FAA airman certificate number;

3. sUAS registration number issued to the aircraft, if required (FAA registration number);

4. Location of the accident;

5. Date of the accident;

6. Time of the accident;

7. Person(s) injured and extent of injury, if any or known;

8. Property damaged and extent of damage, if any or known; and

9. Description of what happened.

 

4.5.2 National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) Reporting. In addition to the report submitted to the ROC, and in accordance with the criteria established by the NTSB, certain sUAS accidents must also be reported to the NTSB. For more information, visit www.ntsb.gov.

 

While operating a small unmanned aircraft system (sUAS) you experience a fly away and several people suffer injuries. Which of the following injuries requires reporting to the FAA?

(14 CFR 107.9 and 107, AC 107, small UAS, as amended)

  • Scrapes and cuts bandaged on site
  • Minor bruises
  • An injury requiring an overnight hospital stay

 

Within how many days must an sUAS accident be reported to the FAA?

(14 CFR part 107.9, AC 107, small UAS, as amended)

  • 30 days
  • 90 days
  • 10 days

Inspection, testing, and demonstration of compliance (UA.I.A.K5)

(a) A remote pilot in command, owner, or person manipulating the flight controls of a small unmanned aircraft system must, upon request, make available to the Administrator:

(1) The remote pilot certificate with a small UAS rating; and

(2) Any other document, record, or report required to be kept under the regulations of this chapter.

(b) The remote pilot in command, visual observer, owner, operator, or person manipulating the flight controls of a small unmanned aircraft system must, upon request, allow the Administrator to make any test or inspection of the small unmanned aircraft system, the remote pilot in command, the person manipulating the flight controls of a small unmanned aircraft system, and, if applicable, the visual observer to determine compliance with this part.

 

AC 107-2 CHAPTER 5. PART 107 SUBPART B, OPERATING LIMITATIONS FOR SMALL UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS (sUAS)

5.5 sUAS Maintenance, Inspections, and Condition for Safe Operation. An sUAS must be maintained in a condition for safe operation. Prior to flight, the remote PIC is responsible for conducting a check of the sUAS and verifying that it is actually in a condition for safe operation. Guidance regarding how to determine that an sUAS is in a condition for safe operation is found in Chapter 7, sUAS Maintenance and Inspection. 

 

AC 107-2 CHAPTER 7. sUAS MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTION

7.1 Applicability. Section 107.15 requires the remote PIC to perform checks of the UA prior to each flight to determine if the sUAS is in a condition for safe operation. This chapter provides guidance on how to inspect and maintain an sUAS. Additionally, Appendix C, sUAS Maintenance and Inspection Best Practices, contains expanded information and best practices for sUAS maintenance and inspection.  

7.2 Maintenance. sUAS maintenance includes scheduled and unscheduled overhaul, repair, inspection, modification, replacement, and system software upgrades of the sUAS and its components necessary for flight. Whenever possible, the operator should maintain the sUAS and its components in accordance with manufacturer’s instruction. The aircraft manufacturer may provide the maintenance program, or, if one is not provided, the applicant may choose to develop one. See paragraph 7.3.5. for suggested benefits of recordkeeping.

7.2.1 Scheduled Maintenance. The sUAS manufacturer may provide documentation for scheduled maintenance of the entire UA and associated system equipment. There may be components of the

sUAS that are identified by the manufacturer to undergo scheduled periodic maintenance or replacement based on time-in-service limits (such as flight hours, cycles and/or the calendar-days).  All manufacturer scheduled maintenance instructions should be followed in the interest of achieving the longest and safest service life of the sUAS.    

7.2.1.1 If there are no scheduled maintenance instructions provided by the sUAS manufacturer or component manufacturer, the operator should establish a scheduled maintenance protocol. This could be done by documenting any repair, modification, overhaul, or replacement of a system component resulting from normal flight operations, and recording the time-in-service for that component at the time of the maintenance procedure. Over time, the operator should then be able to establish a reliable maintenance schedule for the sUAS and its components.

7.2.2 Unscheduled Maintenance. During the course of a preflight inspection, the remote PIC may discover that an sUAS component is in need of servicing (such as lubrication), repair, modification, overhaul, or replacement outside of the scheduled maintenance period as a result of normal flight operations or resulting from a mishap in addition, the sUAS manufacturer or component manufacture may require an unscheduled system software update to correct a problem. In the event such a condition is found, the remote PIC should not conduct flight operations until the discrepancy is corrected.

7.2.3 Performing Maintenance. In some instances, the sUAS or component manufacturer may require certain maintenance tasks be performed by the manufacturer or by a person or facility (personnel) specified by the manufacturer. It is highly recommended that the maintenance be performed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. However, if the operator decides not to use the manufacturer or personnel recommended by the manufacturer and is unable to perform the required maintenance, the operator should consider the expertise of maintenance personnel familiar with the specific sUAS and its components. In addition, though not required, the use of certificated maintenance providers are encouraged, which may include repair stations, holders of mechanic and repairman certificates, and persons working under the supervision of these mechanics and repairman.

7.2.3.1 If the operator or other maintenance personnel are unable to repair, modify, or overhaul an sUAS or component back to its safe operational specification, then it is advisable to replace the sUAS or component with one that is in a condition for safe operation. It is important that all required maintenance be completed before each flight, and preferably in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions or, in lieu of that, within known industry best practices.

 

Under what condition should the Remote PIC of a small unmanned aircraft establish a scheduled maintenance protocol?

(14 CFR 107.8)

  • Small unmanned aircraft systems do not require maintenance
  • When the manufacturer does not provide a maintenance schedule
  • When the FAA requires you to, following an accident

 

Scheduled maintenance should be performed in accordance with the

(AC 107, small UAS, as amended)

  • Contractor requirements
  • Manufacturer’s suggested procedures
  • Stipulations in 14 CFR part 43

Registration requirements for sUAS (UA.I.B.K1)

§ 107.13 Registration. 

A person operating a civil small unmanned aircraft system for purposes of flight must comply with the provisions of § 91.203(a)(2).  

 

AC 107-2 CHAPTER 5. PART 107 SUBPART B, OPERATING LIMITATIONS FOR SMALL UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS (sUAS)

5.4 Aircraft Registration. A small UA must be registered, as provided for in 14 CFR part 47 or part 48 prior to operating under part 107. Part 48 is the regulation that establishes the streamlined online registration option for sUAS that will be operated only within the territorial limits of the United States. The online registration Web address is https://registermyuas.faa.gov. Guidance regarding sUAS registration and marking may be found at http://www.faa.gov/uas/faqs/#reg

Alternatively, sUAS can elect to register under part 47 in the same manner as manned aircraft.

5.4.1 Registration of Foreign-Owned and Operated sUAS. If sUAS operations involve the use of foreign civil aircraft, the operator would need to obtain a Foreign Aircraft Permit pursuant to 14 CFR part 375, § 375.41 before conducting any commercial air operations under this authority.

Foreign civil aircraft means, a) an aircraft of foreign registry that is not part of the armed forces of a foreign nation, or b) a U.S.-registered aircraft owned, controlled, or operated by persons who are not citizens or permanent residents of the United States. Application instructions are specified in § 375.43. Applications should be submitted by electronic mail to the Department of Transportation (DOT) Office of International Aviation, Foreign Air Carrier Licensing Division. Additional information can be obtained at https://cms.dot.gov/policy/aviation-policy/licensing/foreign-carriers

 

14 CFR PART 48—REGISTRATION AND MARKING REQUIREMENTS FOR SMALL UNMANNED AIRCRAFT

Subpart A—General

§48.1   Applicability.

(a) This part provides registration and identification requirements for small unmanned aircraft that are part of a small unmanned aircraft system as defined in §1.1 of this chapter.

(b) Small unmanned aircraft eligible for registration in the United States must be registered and identified in accordance with either:

(1) The registration and identification requirements in this part; or

(2) The registration requirements in part 47 and the identification and registration marking requirements in subparts A and C of part 45.

(c) Small unmanned aircraft intended to be operated outside of the territorial airspace of the United States, or registered through a trust or voting trust, must be registered in accordance with subparts A and B of part 47 and satisfy the identification and registration marking requirements of subparts A and C of part 45.

 

§48.5   Compliance dates.

(a) Small unmanned aircraft used exclusively as model aircraft. For small unmanned aircraft operated by the current owner prior to December 21, 2015, compliance with the requirements of this part or part 47 is required no later than February 19, 2016. For all other small unmanned aircraft, compliance with this part is required prior to operation of the small unmanned aircraft.

(b) Small unmanned aircraft used as other than model aircraft. Small unmanned aircraft owners authorized to conduct operations other than model aircraft operations must register the small unmanned aircraft in accordance with part 47 of this chapter. Beginning March 31, 2016, small unmanned aircraft operated as other than model aircraft may complete aircraft registration in accordance with this part.

 

§48.10   Definitions.

For purposes of this part, the following definitions apply:

Citizen of the United States or U.S. citizen means one of the following:

(1) An individual who is a citizen of the United States or one of its possessions.

(2) A partnership each of whose partners is an individual who is a citizen of the United States.

(3) A corporation or association organized under the laws of the United States or a State, the District of Columbia, or a territory or possession of the United States, of which the president and at least two-thirds of the board of directors and other managing officers are citizens of the United States, which is under the actual control of citizens of the United States, and in which at least 75 percent of the voting interest is owned or controlled by persons that are citizens of the United States.

Registry means the FAA, Civil Aviation Registry, Aircraft Registration Branch.

Resident alien means an individual citizen of a foreign country lawfully admitted for permanent residence in the United States as an immigrant in conformity with the regulations of the Department of Homeland Security (8 CFR Chapter 1).

 

§48.15   Requirement to register.

No person may operate a small unmanned aircraft that is eligible for registration under 49 U.S.C. 44101-44103 unless one of the following criteria has been satisfied:

(a) The owner has registered and marked the aircraft in accordance with this part;

(b) The aircraft weighs 0.55 pounds or less on takeoff, including everything that is on board or otherwise attached to the aircraft; or

(c) The aircraft is an aircraft of the Armed Forces of the United States.

 

§48.20   Eligibility for registration.

A small unmanned aircraft may be registered under 49 U.S.C. 44103 and under this part only when the aircraft is not registered under the laws of a foreign country and is—

(a) Owned by a U.S. citizen;

(b) Owned by an individual citizen of a foreign country lawfully admitted for permanent residence in the United States;

(c) Owned by a corporation not a citizen of the United States when the corporation is organized and doing business under the laws of the United States or a State within the United States, and the aircraft is based and primarily used in the United States; or

(d) An aircraft of—

(1) The United States Government; or

(2) A State, the District of Columbia, a territory or possession of the United States, or a political subdivision of a State, territory, or possession.

 

§48.25   Applicants.

(a) To register a small unmanned aircraft in the United States under this part, a person must provide the information required by §48.100 to the Registry in the form and manner prescribed by the Administrator. Upon submission of this information, the FAA issues a Certificate of Aircraft Registration to that person.

(b) A small unmanned aircraft must be registered by its owner using the legal name of its owner, unless the owner is less than 13 years of age. If the owner is less than 13 years of age, then the small unmanned aircraft must be registered by a person who is at least 13 years of age.

(c) In accordance with 49 U.S.C. 44103(c), registration is not evidence of aircraft ownership in any proceeding in which ownership of an unmanned aircraft by a particular person is in issue.

(d) In this part, “owner” includes a buyer in possession, a bailee, a lessee of a small unmanned aircraft under a contract of conditional sale, and the assignee of that person.

 

§48.30   Fees.

(a) The fee for issuing or renewing a Certificate of Aircraft Registration for aircraft registered in accordance with §48.100(a) is $5.00 per aircraft.

(b) The fee for issuing or renewing a Certificate of Aircraft Registration for aircraft registered in accordance with §48.100(b) is $5.00 per certificate.

(c) Each application for and renewal of a Certificate of Aircraft Registration must be accompanied by the fee described in paragraphs (a) and (b), as applicable, paid to the Federal Aviation Administration through the web-based aircraft registration system, or in another manner if prescribed by the Administrator.

 

Subpart B—Certificates of Aircraft Registration for Small Unmanned Aircraft

§48.100   Application.

(a) Required information: Persons intending to use the small unmanned aircraft as other than a model aircraft. Each applicant for a Certificate of Aircraft Registration issued under this part must submit all of the following information to the Registry:

(1) Applicant name and, for an applicant other than an individual, the name of the authorized representative applying for a Certificate of Aircraft Registration.

(2) Applicant's physical address and, for an applicant other than an individual, the physical address for the authorized representative. If the applicant or authorized representative does not receive mail at their physical address, a mailing address must also be provided.

(3) Applicant's email address or, for applicants other than individuals, the email address of the authorized representative.

(4) The aircraft manufacturer and model name.

(5) The aircraft serial number, if available.

(6) Other information as required by the Administrator.

(b) Required information: Individuals intending to use the small unmanned aircraft exclusively as a model aircraft. Each applicant for a Certificate of Aircraft Registration issued under this part must submit all of the following information to the Registry:

(1) Applicant name.

(2) Applicant's physical address and if the applicant does not receive mail at their physical address, a mailing address must also be provided.

(3) Applicant's email address.

(4) Other information as required by the Administrator.

(c) Provision of information. The information identified in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section must be submitted to the Registry through the Web-based small unmanned aircraft registration system in a form and manner prescribed by the Administrator.

(d) Issuance of Certificate of Aircraft registration. The FAA will issue a Certificate of Aircraft Registration upon completion of the application requirements provided in paragraph (a) or (b) of this section as applicable.

 

§48.105   Requirement to maintain current information.

(a) The holder of a Certificate of Aircraft Registration must ensure that the information provided under §48.100 remains accurate.

(b) The holder of a Certificate of Aircraft Registration must update the information using the web-based small unmanned aircraft registration system within 14 calendar days of the following:

(1) A change in the information provided under §48.100.

(2) When aircraft registration requires cancellation for any reason including sale or transfer, destruction, or export.

 

§48.110   Registration: Persons intending to use small unmanned aircraft for purposes other than as model aircraft.

(a) Certificate of Aircraft Registration. A Certificate of Aircraft Registration issued in accordance with §48.100 for aircraft used for purposes other than as model aircraft constitutes registration only for the small unmanned aircraft identified on the application.

(b) Effective date of registration. An aircraft is registered when the applicant receives a Certificate of Aircraft Registration for the specific aircraft. The effective date of registration is shown by the date of issue on the Certificate of Aircraft Registration issued for the aircraft.

(c) Registration renewal. A Certificate of Aircraft registration issued under this part expires 3 years after the date of issue unless it is renewed.

(1) The holder of a Certificate of Aircraft Registration must renew the Certificate by verifying, in a form and manner prescribed by the Administrator, that the information provided in accordance with §48.100 of this subpart is accurate and if it is not, provide updated information. The verification may take place at any time within the six months preceding the month in which the Certificate of Aircraft registration expires.

(2) A certificate issued under this paragraph expires three years from the expiration date of the previous certificate.

(d) Other events affecting effectiveness of Certificate. Each Certificate of Aircraft Registration issued by the FAA under this subpart is effective, unless registration has ended by reason of having been revoked, canceled, expired, or the ownership is transferred, until the date upon which one of the following events occurs:

(1) Subject to the Convention on the International Recognition of Rights in Aircraft when applicable, the aircraft is registered under the laws of a foreign country.

(2) The small unmanned aircraft is totally destroyed or scrapped.

(3) The holder of the Certificate of Aircraft Registration loses U.S. citizenship.

(4) Thirty days have elapsed since the death of the holder of the Certificate of Aircraft Registration.

(5) The owner, if an individual who is not a citizen of the United States, loses status as a resident alien, unless that person becomes a citizen of the United States at the same time.

(6) The owner is a corporation other than a corporation which is a citizen of the United States and one of the following events occurs:

(i) The corporation ceases to be lawfully organized and doing business under the laws of the United States or any State thereof; or

(ii) The aircraft was not operated exclusively within the United States during the period of registration under this part.

 

§48.115   Registration: Individuals intending to use small unmanned aircraft exclusively as a model aircraft.

(a) Certificate of Aircraft Registration: A Certificate of Aircraft Registration issued in accordance with §48.100 for small unmanned aircraft used exclusively as model aircraft constitutes registration for all small unmanned aircraft used exclusively as model aircraft owned by the individual identified on the application.

(b) Effective date of registration. An aircraft is registered when the applicant receives a Certificate of Aircraft Registration. The effective date of registration is shown by the date of issue on the Certificate of Aircraft Registration issued under this part.

(c) Registration renewal. A Certificate of Aircraft registration issued under this part expires 3 years after the date of issue unless it is renewed.

(1) The holder of a Certificate of Aircraft Registration must renew the Certificate by verifying, in a form and manner prescribed by the Administrator, that the information provided in accordance with §48.100(b) and (c) of this part is accurate and if it is not, provide updated information. The verification may take place at any time within the six months preceding the month in which the Certificate of Aircraft registration expires.

(2) A certificate issued under this paragraph expires three years from the expiration date of the previous certificate.

(d) Other events affecting effectiveness of Certificate. Each Certificate of Aircraft Registration issued by the FAA under this part is effective, unless registration has ended by reason of having been revoked, canceled or expired, or until the date upon which one of the following events occurs:

(1) The holder of the Certificate of Aircraft Registration loses U.S. citizenship.

(2) Thirty days have elapsed since the death of the holder of the Certificate of Aircraft Registration.

(3) The owner, if an individual who is not a citizen of the United States, loses status as a resident alien, unless that person becomes a citizen of the United States at the same time.

 

§48.120   Invalid registration.

The registration of a small unmanned aircraft is invalid if, at the time it is made—

(a) The aircraft is registered in a foreign country;

(b) The applicant is not the owner, except when the applicant registers on behalf of an owner who is under 13 years of age;

(c) The applicant is not eligible to submit an application under this part; or

(d) The interest of the applicant in the aircraft was created by a transaction that was not entered into in good faith, but rather was made to avoid (with or without the owner's knowledge) compliance with 49 U.S.C. 44101-44103.

 

§48.125   Foreign civil aircraft.

Except for corporations eligible to register under §48.20(c), the FAA will issue a recognition of ownership to persons required to comply with the provisions of this part pursuant to an authorization to operate issued under part 375 of this title. The recognition of ownership does not have the effect of U.S. aircraft registration.

 

Subpart C—Aircraft Marking

§48.200   General.

(a) No person may operate a small unmanned aircraft registered in accordance with this part unless the aircraft displays a unique identifier in accordance with the requirements of §48.205 of this subpart.

(b) A unique identifier is one of the following:

(1) The registration number issued to an individual or the registration number issued to the aircraft by the Registry upon completion of the registration process provided by this part; or

(2) If authorized by the Administrator and provided with the application for Certificate of Aircraft Registration under §48.100 of this part, the small unmanned aircraft serial number.

 

§48.205   Display and location of unique identifier.

(a) The unique identifier must be maintained in a condition that is legible.

(b) The unique identifier must be affixed to the small unmanned aircraft by any means necessary to ensure that it will remain affixed for the duration of each operation.

(c) The unique identifier must be readily accessible and visible upon inspection of the small unmanned aircraft. A unique identifier enclosed in a compartment is readily accessible if it can be accessed without the use of any tool.

Sample UAG Exam Question 30

Under what condition would a small UA not have to be registered before it is operated in the United States?

  1. When the aircraft weighs less than .55 pounds on takeoff, including everything that is on-board or attached to the aircraft.
  2. When the aircraft has a takeoff weight that is more than .55 pounds, but less than 55 pounds, not including fuel and necessary attachments.
  3. All small UAS need to be registered regardless of the weight of the aircraft before, during, or after the flight.

PLT530 / UA.I.B.K1 Registration requirements for small unmanned aircraft systems.

 

 

Sample UAG Exam Question 31

According to 14 CFR part 48, when must a person register a small UA with the Federal Aviation Administration?

  1. All civilian small UAs weighing greater than .55 pounds must be registered regardless of its intended use.
  2. When the small UA is used for any purpose other than as a model aircraft.
  3. Only when the operator will be paid for commercial services.

PLT530 / UA.I.B.K1 Registration requirements for small unmanned aircraft systems. 

 

 

Sample UAG Exam Question 32

According to 14 CFR part 48, when would a small UA owner not be permitted to register it?

  1. The owner is less than 13 years of age.
  2. All persons must register their small UA.
  3. If the owner does not have a valid United States driver's license.

PLT530 / UA.I.B.K1 Registration requirements for small unmanned aircraft systems. 

 

Under what condition would a small unmanned aircraft not have to be registered before it is operated in the United States?

(14 CFR 48.15)

  • When the aircraft weights less than 0.55lbs on takeoff, including everything that is on-board or attached to the aircraft
  • All small unmanned aircraft need to be registered regardless of the weight of the aircraft before, during or after the flight
  • When the aircraft has a takeoff weight that is more than 0.55lbs but less than 55lbs, not including fuel and necessary attachments

 

According to 14 CFR part 48, when would a small unmanned aircraft owner not be permitted to register it?

(14 CFR 48.25b)

  • All persons are eligible to register a small unmanned aircraft
  • If the owner does not have a valid US driver’s license
  • If the owner is less than 13 years of age

 

The requirement for the sUAS to be in a condition for safe operation (UA.I.B.K2)

§ 107.15 Condition for safe operation. 

(a) No person may operate a civil small unmanned aircraft system unless it is in a condition for safe operation. Prior to each flight, the remote pilot in command must check the small unmanned aircraft system to determine whether it is in a condition for safe operation.

(b) No person may continue flight of the small unmanned aircraft when he or she knows or has reason to know that the small unmanned aircraft system is no longer in a condition for safe operation.

 

Medical condition(s) that would interfere with safe operation of an sUAS (UA.I.B.K3)

§ 107.17 Medical condition. 

No person may manipulate the flight controls of a small unmanned aircraft system or act as a remote pilot in command, visual observer, or direct participant in the operation of the small unmanned aircraft if he or she knows or has reason to know that he or she has a physical or mental condition that would interfere with the safe operation of the small unmanned aircraft system.

 

AC 107-2 CHAPTER 5. PART 107 SUBPART B, OPERATING LIMITATIONS FOR SMALL UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS (sUAS)

5.6 Medical Condition. Being able to safely operate the sUAS relies on, among other things, the physical and mental capabilities of the remote PIC, person manipulating the controls, VO, and any other direct participant in the sUAS operation. Though the person manipulating the controls of an sUAS and VO are not required to obtain an airman medical certificate, they may not participate in the operation of an sUAS if they know or have reason to know that they have a physical or mental condition that could interfere with the safe operation of the sUAS.

5.6.1 Physical or Mental Incapacitations. Obvious examples of physical or mental incapacitations that could render a remote PIC, person manipulating the controls, or VO incapable of performing their sUAS operational duties include, but are not limited to, such things as:

1. The temporary or permanent loss of the dexterity necessary to operate the CS to safely control the small UA.

2. The inability to maintain the required “see and avoid” vigilance due to blurred vision.

3. The inability to maintain proper situational awareness of the small UA operations due to illness and/or medication(s), such as after taking medications with cautions not to drive or operate heavy machinery.

4. A debilitating physical condition, such as a migraine headache or moderate or severe body ache(s) or pain(s) that would render the remote PIC, person manipulating the controls, or VO unable to perform sUAS operational duties.

5. A hearing or speaking impairment that would inhibit the remote PIC, person manipulating the controls, and VO from effectively communicating with each other. In a situation such as this, the remote PIC must ensure that an alternative means of effective communication is implemented. For example, a person who is hearing impaired may be able to effectively use sign language to communicate. 

 

The responsibility and authority of the remote PIC (UA.I.B.K4)

Allowing a person other than the remote PIC to manipulate the flight controls (UA.I.B.K4a)

§ 107.19 Remote pilot in command. 

(a) A remote pilot in command must be designated before or during the flight of the small unmanned aircraft.

(b) The remote pilot in command is directly responsible for and is the final authority as to the operation of the small unmanned aircraft system.

(c) The remote pilot in command must ensure that the small unmanned aircraft will pose no undue hazard to other people, other aircraft, or other property in the event of a loss of control of the aircraft for any reason.

(d) The remote pilot in command must ensure that the small UAS operation complies with all applicable regulations of this chapter.

(e) The remote pilot in command must have the ability to direct the small unmanned aircraft to ensure compliance with the applicable provisions of this chapter.

 

AC 107-2 CHAPTER 5. PART 107 SUBPART B, OPERATING LIMITATIONS FOR SMALL UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS (sUAS)

5.1 Applicability. This chapter provides guidance regarding sUAS operating limitations and the responsibilities of the remote pilot in command (PIC), person manipulating the controls, visual observer (VO), and anyone else that may be directly participating in the sUAS operation. A person is also a direct participant in the sUAS operation if his or her involvement is necessary for the safe operation of the sUAS.

5.2 Aircraft Operation. Just like a manned-aircraft PIC, the remote PIC of an sUAS is directly responsible for, and is the final authority as to, the operation of that UAS. The remote PIC will have final authority over the flight. Additionally, a person manipulating the controls can participate in flight operations under certain conditions. It is important to note that a person may not operate or act as a remote PIC or VO in the operation of more than one UA at the same time. The following items describe the requirements for both a remote PIC and a person manipulating the controls:

5.2.1 Remote PIC. A person acting as a remote PIC of an sUAS in the National Airspace System (NAS) under part 107 must obtain a remote pilot certificate with an sUAS rating issued by the FAA prior to sUAS operation. The remote PIC must have this certificate easily accessible during flight operations. Guidance regarding remote pilot certification is found in Chapter 6, Part 107 Subpart C, Remote Pilot Certification. Again, the remote PIC will have the final authority and responsibility for the operation and safety of an sUAS operation conducted under part 107.

5.2.1.1 Additionally, part 107 permits transfer of control of an sUAS between certificated remote pilots. Two or more certificated remote pilots transferring operational control (i.e., the remote PIC designation) to each other may do so only if they are both capable of maintaining Visual Line of Sight (VLOS) of the UA and without loss of control (LOC). For example, one remote pilot may be designated the remote PIC at the beginning of the operation, and then at some point in the operation another remote pilot may take over as remote PIC by positively communicating that he or she is doing so. As the person responsible for the safe operation of the UAS, any remote pilot who will assume remote PIC duties should meet all of the requirements of part 107, including awareness of factors that could affect the flight. 

5.2.2 Person Manipulating the Flight Controls. A person who does not hold a remote pilot certificate or a remote pilot that that has not met the recurrent testing/training requirements of part 107 may operate the sUAS under part 107, as long as he or she is directly supervised by a remote PIC and the remote PIC has the ability to immediately take direct control of the sUAS. This ability is necessary to ensure that the remote PIC can quickly address any hazardous situation before an accident occurs. The ability for the remote PIC to immediately take over the flight controls could be achieved by using a number of different methods. For example, the operation could involve a “buddy box” type system that uses two control stations (CS): one for the person manipulating the flight controls and one for the remote PIC that allows the remote PIC to override the other CS and immediately take direct control of the small UA. Another method could involve the remote PIC standing close enough to the person manipulating the flight controls so as to be able to physically take over the CS from the other person. A third method could employ the use of an automation system whereby the remote PIC could immediately engage that system to put the small UA in a pre-programmed “safe” mode (such as in a hover, in a holding pattern, or “return home”).

5.2.3 Autonomous Operations. An autonomous operation is generally considered an operation in which the remote pilot inputs a flight plan into the CS, which sends it to the autopilot onboard the small UA. During automated flight, flight control inputs are made by components onboard the aircraft, not from a CS. Thus, the remote PIC could lose the control link to the small UA and the aircraft would still continue to fly the programmed mission/return home to land. During automated flight, the remote PIC also must have the ability to change routing/altitude or command the aircraft to land immediately. The ability to direct the small UA may be through manual manipulation of the flight controls or through commands using automation.

5.2.3.1 The remote PIC must retain the ability to direct the small UA to ensure compliance with the requirements of part 107. There are a number of different methods that a remote PIC may utilize to direct the small UA to ensure compliance with part 107. For example, the remote pilot may transmit a command for the autonomous aircraft to climb, descend, land now, proceed to a new waypoint, enter an orbit pattern, or return to home. Any of these methods may be used to satisfactorily avoid a hazard or give right of way.

5.2.3.2 The use of automation does not allow a person to simultaneously operate more than one small UA. 

 

Sample UAG Exam Question 29

Which technique should a remote pilot use to scan for traffic? A remote pilot should

  1. Systematically focus on different segments of the sky for short intervals.
  2. Concentrate on relative movement detected in the peripheral vision area.
  3. Continuously scan the sky from right to left.

PLT194 / UA.I.B.K4a Responsibility and authority of the remote pilot in command: See and avoid other aircraft and other potential hazards that may impact the remote pilot in command operating the aircraft.

 

A person without a part 107 remote pilot certificate may operate an sUAS for commercial operations:

(AC 107, small UAS, as amended)

  • Alone, if operating during daylight hours
  • Under the direct supervision of a remote PIC
  • Only when visual observers participate in the operation

 

When using a small unmanned aircraft in a commercial operation, who is responsible for informing the participants about emergency procedures?

(AC 107, small UAS, as amended)

  • The FAA Inspector-in-Charge
  • The remote Pilot in Command
  • The lead visual observer

 

Before each flight, the Remote PIC must ensure that

(AC 107, small UAS, as amended)

  • ATC has granted clearance
  • Objects carried on the sUAS are secure
  • The site supervisor has approved the flight

Regulatory deviation and reporting requirements for in-flight emergencies (UA.I.B.K5)

§ 107.21 In-flight emergency.

(a) In an in-flight emergency requiring immediate action, the remote pilot in command may deviate from any rule of this part to the extent necessary to meet that emergency. 

 

AC 107-2

5.17 In-Flight Emergency. An in-flight emergency is an unexpected and unforeseen serious occurrence or situation that requires urgent, prompt action. In case of an in-flight emergency, the remote PIC is permitted to deviate from any rule of part 107 to the extent necessary to respond to that emergency. A remote PIC who exercises this emergency power to deviate from the rules of part 107 is required, upon FAA request, to send a written report to the FAA explaining the deviation. Emergency action should be taken in such a way as to minimize injury or damage to property. 

 

To avoid a possible collision with a manned airplane, you estimate that your small unmanned aircraft climbed to an altitude greater than  600 feet AGL. To whom must you report the deviation?

(14 CFR 107.21b)

  • The FAA upon request
  • Air Traffic Control
  • The National Transportation Safety Board

Hazardous operations (UA.I.B.K6)

Careless or reckless (UA.I.B.K6a)

Dropping an object (UA.I.B.K6b)

§ 107.23 Hazardous operation. 

No person may:

(a) Operate a small unmanned aircraft system in a careless or reckless manner so as to endanger the life or property of another; or

(b) Allow an object to be dropped from a small unmanned aircraft in a manner that creates an undue hazard to persons or property.

 

AC 107-2

5.18 Careless or Reckless Operation. As with manned aircraft, remote PICs are prohibited from engaging in a careless or reckless operation. We also note that because sUAS have additional operating considerations that are not present in manned aircraft operations, there may be additional activity that would be careless or reckless if conducted using an sUAS. For example, failure to consider weather conditions near structures, trees, or rolling terrain when operating in a densely populated area could be determined as careless or reckless operation. 

 

Operating from a moving aircraft or moving land- or water-borne vehicle (UA.I.B.K7)

§ 107.25 Operation from a moving vehicle or aircraft. 

No person may operate a small unmanned aircraft system-

(a) From a moving aircraft; or

(b) From a moving land or water-borne vehicle unless the small unmanned aircraft is flown over a sparsely populated area and is not transporting another person’s property for compensation or hire.

 

AC 107-2

5.13 Operations from Moving Vehicles. Part 107 permits operation of an sUAS from a moving land or water-borne vehicle over a sparsely-populated area. However, operation from a moving aircraft is prohibited. Additionally, small UA transporting another person’s property for compensation or hire may not be operated from any moving vehicle.

5.13.1 Waiving the Sparsely-Populated Area Provision. Although the regulation states that operations from a moving vehicle may only be conducted over a sparsely-populated area, this provision may be waived (see paragraph 5.19). The operation is subject to the same restrictions that apply to all other part 107 operations. For instance, the remote PIC operating from a moving vehicle is still required to maintain VLOS and operations are still prohibited over persons not directly involved in the operation of the sUAS unless under safe cover. The remote PIC is also responsible for ensuring that no person is subject to undue risk as a result of LOC of the small UA for any reason. If a VO is not located in the same vehicle as the remote PIC, the VO and remote PIC must still maintain effective communication.

5.13.2 Careless or Reckless Operation of sUAS. Part 107 also prohibits careless or reckless operation of an sUAS. Flying an sUAS while driving a moving vehicle is considered to be careless or reckless because the person’s attention would be hazardously divided. Therefore, the remote PIC or person manipulating the flight controls cannot operate an sUAS and drive a moving vehicle in a safe manner and remain in compliance with part 107.

5.13.3 Applicable Laws. Other laws, such as state and local traffic laws, may also apply to the conduct of a person driving a vehicle. Many states currently prohibit distracted driving and state or local laws may also be amended in the future to impose restrictions on how cars and public roads may be used with regard to an sUAS operation. The FAA emphasizes that people involved in an sUAS operation are responsible for complying with all applicable laws and not just the FAA’s regulations. 

 

In accordance with 14 CFR part 107, you may operate an sUAS from a moving vehicle when no property is carried for compensation or hire

(14 CFR part 107.25, AC 107, small UAS, as amended)

  • Over suburban areas
  • Over a sparsely populated area
  • Over a parade or other social events

Alcohol or drugs and the provisions on prohibition of use (UA.I.B.K8)

§ 107.27 Alcohol or drugs. 

A person manipulating the flight controls of a small unmanned aircraft system or acting as a remote pilot in command or visual observer must comply with the provisions of §§ 91.17 and 91.19 of this chapter.

 

AC 107-2

5.15 Operations while Impaired. Part 107 does not allow operation of an sUAS if the remote PIC, person manipulating the controls, or VO is unable to safely carry out his or her responsibilities. It is the remote PIC’s responsibility to ensure all crewmembers are not participating in the operation while impaired. While drug and alcohol use are known to impair judgment, certain over-the-counter medications and medical conditions could also affect the ability to safely operate a small UA. For example, certain antihistamines and decongestants may cause drowsiness. We also emphasize that part 107 prohibits a person from serving as a remote PIC, person manipulating the controls, VO, or other crewmember if he or she:

• Consumed any alcoholic beverage within the preceding 8 hours;

• Is under the influence of alcohol;

• Has a blood alcohol concentration of .04 percent or greater; and/or

• Is using a drug that affects the person’s mental or physical capabilities.

5.15.1 Medical Conditions. Certain medical conditions, such as epilepsy, may also create a risk to operations. It is the remote PIC’s responsibility to determine that their medical condition is under control and they can safely conduct a UAS operation. 

Remote pilot sUAS study guide

Introduction

14 CFR part 107 does not allow operation of small UA if the remote PIC, the person manipulating the controls, or Visual Observer (VO) is unable to safely carry out his or her responsibilities. It is the remote PIC’s responsibility to ensure all crewmembers are not participating in the operation while impaired. While drug and alcohol use are known to impair judgment, certain over-the-counter (OTC) medications and medical conditions could also affect the ability to safely operate a small UA. For example, certain antihistamines and decongestants may cause drowsiness. We also emphasize that part 107 prohibits a person from serving as a remote PIC, person manipulating the controls, VO, or other crewmember if he or she:

  • Has consumed any alcoholic beverage within the preceding 8 hours

  • Is under the influence of alcohol

  • Has a blood alcohol concentration of .04 percent or greater

  • Is using a drug that affects the person’s mental or physical capabilities

There are certain medical conditions, such as epilepsy, may also create a risk to operations. It is the remote PIC’s responsibility to determine that their medical condition is under control and they can safely conduct a small UA operation. 

Don't Drink and Drone

Daylight operation (UA.I.B.K9)

§ 107.29 Daylight operation

(a) No person may operate a small unmanned aircraft system during night.

(b) No person may operate a small unmanned aircraft system during periods of civil twilight unless the small unmanned aircraft has lighted anti-collision lighting visible for at least 3 statute miles. The remote pilot in command may reduce the intensity of the anti-collision lighting if he or she determines that, because of operating conditions, it would be in the interest of safety to do so.

(c) For purposes of subsection (b) of this section, civil twilight refers to the following:

(1) Except for Alaska, a period of time that begins 30 minutes before official sunrise and ends at official sunrise;

(2) Except for Alaska, a period of time that begins at official sunset and ends 30 minutes after official sunset; and

(3) In Alaska, the period of civil twilight as defined in the Air Almanac.

 

AC 107-2

5.16 Daylight Operations. Part 107 prohibits operation of an sUAS at night, which is defined in part 1 as the time between the end of evening civil twilight and the beginning of morning civil twilight, as published in The Air Almanac, converted to local time. In the continental United States (CONUS), evening civil twilight is the period of sunset until 30 minutes after sunset and morning civil twilight is the period of 30 minutes prior to sunrise until sunrise. In Alaska, the definition of civil twilight differs and is described in The Air Almanac. The Air Almanac provides tables which are used to determine sunrise and sunset at various latitudes. These tables can also be downloaded from the Naval Observatory and customized for your location. 

5.16.1 Civil Twilight Operations. When sUAS operations are conducted during civil twilight, the small UA must be equipped with anticollision lights that are capable of being visible for at least 3 sm. However, the remote PIC may reduce the visible distance of the lighting less than 3 sm during a given flight if he or she has determined that it would be in the interest of safety to do so, for example if it impacts his or her night vision. sUAS not operated during civil twilight are not required to be equipped with anti-collision lighting. 

 

Sample UAG Exam Question 34

According to 14 CFR part 107, what is required to operate a small UA within 30 minutes after official sunset?

  1. Use of anti-collision lights.
  2. Must be operated in a rural area.
  3. Use of a transponder.

PLT119 / UA.I.B.K9 Daylight operation. 

 

 

According to 14 CFR part 107, what is required to operate a small unmanned aircraft within 30 minutes after official sunset

(14 CFR 107.29b)

  • Use of a transponder
  • Use of lighted anti-collision lights
  • Must be operated in a rural area

Visual line of sight (VLOS) aircraft operations (UA.I.B.K10)

§ 107.31 Visual line of sight aircraft operation 

(a) With vision that is unaided by any device other than corrective lenses, the remote pilot in command, the visual observer (if one is used), and the person manipulating the flight control of the small unmanned aircraft system must be able to see the unmanned aircraft throughout the entire flight in order to:

(1) Know the unmanned aircraft’s location;

(2) Determine the unmanned aircraft’s attitude, altitude, and direction of flight;

(3) Observe the airspace for other air traffic or hazards; and

(4) Determine that the unmanned aircraft does not endanger the life or property of another.

(b) Throughout the entire flight of the small unmanned aircraft, the ability described in subsection (a) of this section must be exercised by either:

(1) The remote pilot in command and the person manipulating the flight controls of the small unmanned aircraft system; or

(2) A visual observer.

 

AC 107-2 CHAPTER 5. PART 107 SUBPART B, OPERATING LIMITATIONS FOR SMALL UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS (sUAS)

5.7 VLOS Aircraft Operation. The remote PIC and person manipulating the controls must be able to see the small UA at all times during flight. Therefore, the small UA must be operated closely enough to the CS to ensure visibility requirements are met during small UA operations. This requirement also applies to the VO, if used during the aircraft operation. However, the person maintaining VLOS may have brief moments in which he or she is not looking directly at or cannot see the small UA, but still retains the capability to see the UA or quickly maneuver it back to VLOS. These moments can be for the safety of the operation (e.g., looking at the controller to see battery life remaining) or for operational necessity. For operational necessity, the remote PIC or person manipulating the controls may intentionally maneuver the UA so that he or she loses sight of it for brief periods of time. Should the remote PIC or person manipulating the controls lose VLOS of the small UA, he or she must regain VLOS as soon as practicable. For example, a remote PIC stationed on the ground utilizing a small UA to inspect a rooftop may lose sight of the aircraft for brief periods while inspecting the farthest point of the roof. As another example, a remote PIC conducting a search operation around a fire scene with a small UA may briefly lose sight of the aircraft while it is temporarily behind a dense column of smoke. However, it must be emphasized that even though the remote PIC may briefly lose sight of the small UA, he or she always has the see-and-avoid responsibilities set out in part 107, §§ 107.31 and 107.37. The circumstances of what would prevent a remote PIC from fulfilling those responsibilities will vary, depending on factors such as the type of UAS, the operational environment, and distance between the remote PIC and the UA. For this reason, there is no specific time interval that interruption of VLOS is permissible, as it would have the effect of potentially allowing a hazardous interruption or prohibiting a reasonable one. If VLOS cannot be regained, the remote PIC or person manipulating the controls should follow pre-determined procedures for a loss of VLOS. These procedures are determined by the capabilities of the sUAS and may include immediately landing the UA, entering hover mode, or returning to home sequence. Thus, the VLOS requirement would not prohibit actions such as scanning the airspace or briefly looking down at the small UA CS. 5.7.1 Unaided Vision. VLOS must be accomplished and maintained by unaided vision, except vision that is corrected by the use of eyeglasses (spectacles) or contact lenses. Vision aids, such as binoculars, may be used only momentarily to enhance situational awareness. For example, the remote PIC, person manipulating the controls, or VO may use vision aids to avoid flying over persons or conflicting with other aircraft. Similarly, first person view devices may be used during operations, but do not satisfy the VLOS requirement. While the rule does not set specific vision standards, the FAA recommends that remote PICs, persons manipulating the controls, and VOs maintain 20/20 distant vision acuity (corrected) and normal field of vision.

5.7.2 VO. The use of a VO is optional. The remote PIC may choose to use a VO to supplement situational awareness and VLOS. Although the remote PIC and person manipulating the controls must maintain the capability to see the UA, using one or more VOs allows the remote PIC and person manipulating the controls to conduct other mission-critical duties (such as checking displays) while still ensuring situational awareness of the UA. The VO must be able to effectively communicate:

• The small UA location, attitude, altitude, and direction of flight;

• The position of other aircraft or hazards in the airspace; and

• The determination that the UA does not endanger the life or property of another.

5.7.2.1 To ensure that the VO can carry out his or her duties, the remote PIC must ensure that the VO is positioned in a location where he or she is able to see the small UA sufficiently to maintain VLOS. The remote PIC can do this by specifying the location of the VO. The FAA also requires that the remote PIC and VO coordinate to 1) scan the airspace where the small UA is operating for any potential collision hazard, and 2) maintain awareness of the position of the small UA through direct visual observation. This would be accomplished by the VO maintaining visual contact with the small UA and the surrounding airspace, and then communicating to the remote PIC and person manipulating the controls the flight status of the small UA and any hazards which may enter the area of operation, so that the remote PIC or person manipulating the controls can take appropriate action.

5.7.2.2 To make this communication possible, the remote PIC, person manipulating the controls, and VO must work out a method of effective communication, which does not create a distraction and allows them to understand each other. The communication method must be determined prior to operation. This effective communication requirement would permit the use of communication-assisting devices, such as a hand-held radio, to facilitate communication from a distance. 

 

The requirements when a visual observer is used (UA.I.B.K11)

§ 107.33 Visual observer. 

If a visual observer is used during the aircraft operation, all of the following requirements must be met:

(a) The remote pilot in command, the person manipulating the flight controls of the small unmanned aircraft system, and the visual observer must maintain effective communication with each other at all times.

(b) The remote pilot in command must ensure that the visual observer is able to see the unmanned aircraft in the manner specified in § 107.31.

(c) The remote pilot in command, the person manipulating the flight controls of the small unmanned aircraft system, and the visual observer must coordinate to do the following:

(1) Scan the airspace where the small unmanned aircraft is operating for any potential collision hazard; and

(2) Maintain awareness of the position of the small unmanned aircraft through direct visual observation.

 

A person whose sole task is watching the sUAS to report hazards to the rest of the crew is called

(14 CFR part 107.3, AC 107, small UAS, as amended)

  • Remote PIC
  • Visual observer
  • Person manipulating the controls

The prohibition of operating multiple sUAS (UA.I.B.K12)

§ 107.35 Operation of multiple small unmanned aircraft.  

A person may not operate or act as a remote pilot in command or visual observer in the operation of more than one unmanned aircraft at the same time.

 

The prohibition of carrying hazardous material (UA.I.B.K13)

§ 107.36 Carriage of hazardous material. 

A small unmanned aircraft may not carry hazardous material. For purposes of this section, the term hazardous material is defined in 49 CFR 171.8.

 

AC 107-2

5.14 Transportation of Property. Part 107 permits transportation of property by sUAS for compensation or hire. These operations must be conducted within a confined area and in compliance with the operating restrictions of part 107. When conducting the transportation of property, the transport must occur wholly within the bounds of a state. It may not involve transport between, 1) Hawaii and another place in Hawaii through airspace outside Hawaii, 2) the District of Columbia (DC) and another place in DC, or 3) a territory or possession of the United States and another place in the same territory or possession, as this is defined by statute as interstate air transportation.

5.14.1 Limitations. As with other operations in part 107, sUAS operations involving the transport of property must be conducted within VLOS of the remote pilot.While the VLOS limitation can be waived for some operations under the rule, it cannot for transportation of property. Additionally, part 107 does not allow the operation of an sUAS from a moving vehicle or aircraft if the small UA is being used to transport property for compensation or hire. This limitation cannot be waived. The maximum total weight of the small UA (including any property being transported) is limited to under 55 pounds. Additionally, other provisions of part 107 require the remote pilot to know the UA’s location; to determine the UA’s attitude, altitude, and direction; to yield the right-of-way to other aircraft; and to maintain the ability to see and avoid other aircraft.

5.14.2 Hazardous Materials. Part 107 does not allow the carriage of hazardous materials because the carriage of hazardous materials poses a higher level of risk. 

 

Staying safely away from other aircraft and right-of-way rules (UA.I.B.K14)

See and avoid other aircraft and other potential hazard considerations of the Remote PIC (UA.I.B.K14a)

§ 107.37 Operation near aircraft; right-of-way rules. 

(a) Each small unmanned aircraft must yield the right of way to all aircraft, airborne vehicles, and launch and reentry vehicles. Yielding the right of way means that the small unmanned aircraft must give way to the aircraft or vehicle and may not pass over, under, or ahead of it unless well clear.

(b) No person may operate a small unmanned aircraft so close to another aircraft as to create a collision hazard.

 

AC 107-2

5.12 Remaining Clear of Other Aircraft. A remote PIC has a responsibility to operate the small UA so it remains clear of and yields to all other aircraft. This is traditionally referred to as “see and avoid.” To satisfy this responsibility, the remote PIC must know the location and flight path of his or her small UA at all times. The remote PIC must be aware of other aircraft, persons, and property in the vicinity of the operating area, and maneuver the small UA to avoid a collision, as well as prevent other aircraft from having to take action to avoid the small UA. 

 

Operations over human beings (UA.I.B.K15)

§ 107.39 Operation over human beings. 

No person may operate a small unmanned aircraft over a human being unless that human being is:

(a) Directly participating in the operation of the small unmanned aircraft; or

(b) Located under a covered structure or inside a stationary vehicle that can provide reasonable protection from a falling small unmanned aircraft.

 

AC 107-2 CHAPTER 5. PART 107 SUBPART B, OPERATING LIMITATIONS FOR SMALL UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS (sUAS)

5.11 Prohibited Operation Over Persons. Part 107 prohibits a person from flying a small UA directly over a person who is not under a safe cover, such as a protective structure or a stationary vehicle. However, a small UA may be flown over a person who is directly participating in the operation of the sUAS, such as the remote PIC, other person manipulating the controls, a VO, or crewmembers necessary for the safety of the sUAS operation, as assigned and briefed by the remote PIC. There are several ways that the sUAS remote PIC can comply with these requirements, such as:

• Selecting an operational area (site) that is clearly unpopulated/uninhabited. If selecting a site that is populated/inhabited, have a plan of action, which ensures persons remain clear of the operating area, remain indoors, or remain under safe cover until such time that the small UA flight has ended. Safe cover is a structure or stationary vehicle that would protect a person from harm if the small UA were to crash into that structure or vehicle;

• Establishing an operational area in which the remote PIC has taken reasonable precautions to keep free of persons not directly participating in the operation of the sUAS;

• Choosing an operating area that is sparsely populated, or, ideally, clear of persons if operating a small UA from a moving vehicle;

• Having a plan of action that ensures the small UA remains clear of persons who may enter the operating area.

• Adopt an appropriate operating distance from persons not directly participating in the operation of the sUAS. 

 

Prior authorization required for operation in certain airspace (UA.I.B.K16)

§ 107.41 Operation in certain airspace. 

No person may operate a small unmanned aircraft in Class B, Class C, or Class D airspace or within the lateral boundaries of the surface area of Class E airspace designated for an airport unless that person has prior authorization from Air Traffic Control (ATC).

 

Sample UAG Exam Question 33

According to 14 CFR part 107, how may a remote pilot operate an unmanned aircraft in class C airspace?

  1. The remote pilot must have prior authorization from the Air Traffic Control (ATC) facility having jurisdiction over that airspace.
  2. The remote pilot must monitor the Air Traffic Control (ATC) frequency from launch to recovery.
  3. The remote pilot must contact the Air Traffic Control (ATC) facility after launching the unmanned aircraft.

PLT161 / UA.I.B.K16 Prior authorization required for operation in certain airspace. 

Operating in the vicinity of airports (UA.I.B.K17)

§ 107.43 Operation in the vicinity of airports. 

No person may operate a small unmanned aircraft in a manner that interferes with operations and traffic patterns at any airport, heliport, or seaplane base.

 

Operating in prohibited or restricted areas (UA.I.B.K18)

§ 107.45 Operation in prohibited or restricted areas.  

No person may operate a small unmanned aircraft in prohibited or restricted areas unless that person has permission from the using or controlling agency, as appropriate.

 

Flight restrictions in the proximity of certain areas designated by notice to airmen (NOTAM) (UA.I.B.K19)

§ 107.47 Flight restrictions in the proximity of certain areas designated by notice to airmen.

A person acting as a remote pilot in command must comply with the provisions of §§ 91.137 through 91.145 and 99.7 of this chapter. 

 

Preflight familiarization, inspection, and actions for aircraft operations (UA.I.B.K20)

§ 107.49 Preflight familiarization, inspection, and actions for aircraft operation. 

Prior to flight, the remote pilot in command must:

(a) Assess the operating environment, considering risks to persons and property in the immediate vicinity both on the surface and in the air. This assessment must include:

(1) Local weather conditions;

(2) Local airspace and any flight restrictions;

(3) The location of persons and property on the surface; and

(4) Other ground hazards.

(b) Ensure that all persons directly participating in the small unmanned aircraft operation are informed about the operating conditions, emergency procedures, contingency procedures, roles and responsibilities, and potential hazards;

(c) Ensure that all control links between ground control station and the small unmanned aircraft are working properly;

(d) If the small unmanned aircraft is powered, ensure that there is enough available power for the small unmanned aircraft system to operate for the intended operational time; and

(e) Ensure that any object attached or carried by the small unmanned aircraft is secure and does not adversely affect the flight characteristics or controllability of the aircraft.

Sample UAG Exam Question 28

According to 14 CFR part 107, who is responsible for determining the performance of a small unmanned aircraft?

  1. Remote pilot-in-command.
  2. Manufacturer.
  3. Owner or operator.

PLT454 / UA.I.B.K20 Preflight familiarization, inspection, and actions for aircraft operations.

 

 

According to 14 CFR part 107, the responsibility to inspect the small unmanned aircraft system (sUAS) to ensure it is in a safe operating condition rests with the

(14 CFR 107.49a)

  • Visual observer
  • Owner of the sUAS
  • Remote PIC

 

According to 14 CFR part 107, who is responsible for determining the performance of a small unmanned aircraft

(14 CFR 107.49)

  • Manufacturer
  • Owner or operator
  • Remote PIC

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The information on this website is for educational purposes only and DOES NOT constitute legal advice. While the author of this website is an attorney, she is not your attorney, nor are you her client, until you enter into a written agreement with Nilsson Law, PLLC to provide legal services.

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