English Language Proficiency
In accordance with the requirements of 14 CFR 107.61(b) and the FAA English Language Standard for an FAA Certificate Issued Under 14 CFR parts 61, 63, 65, and 107 (AC 60-28, as amended), throughout the application and testing process, the applicant must demonstrate the ability to read, write, speak, and understand the English language.
FAA may make an exception if the person is unable to meet one of these requirements due to medical reasons, such as a hearing impairment.
Subject to the provisions of §§107.57 and 107.59, in order to be eligible for a remote pilot certificate with a sUAS rating under this subpart, a person must:
(a) Be at least 16 years of age;
(b) Be able to read, speak, write, and understand the English language. If the applicant is unable to meet one of these requirements due to medical reasons, the FAA may place such operating limitations on that applicant's certificate as are necessary for the safe operation of the sUA;
(c) Not know or have reason to know that he or she has a physical or mental condition that would interfere with the safe operation of a sUAS; and
(d) Demonstrate aeronautical knowledge by satisfying one of the following conditions, in a manner acceptable to the Administrator:
(1) Pass an initial aeronautical knowledge test covering the areas of knowledge specified in §107.73; or
(2) If a person holds a pilot certificate (other than a student pilot certificate) issued under part 61 of this chapter and meets the flight review requirements specified in §61.56, complete training covering the areas of knowledge specified in §107.74.
Knowledge Test Requirements
To verify your eligibility to take the certification knowledge test, you must meet the following in accordance with 14 CFR 107.67
(a) Knowledge tests prescribed by or under this part are given by persons and in the manner designated by the Administrator.
(b) An applicant for a knowledge test must have proper identification at the time of application that contains the applicant's:
(3) Date of birth, which shows the applicant meets or will meet the age requirements of this part for the certificate and rating sought before the expiration date of the aircrew knowledge test report; and
(4) Permanent mailing address. If the applicant's permanent mailing address is a post office box number, then the applicant must also provide a current residential address.
(c) The minimum passing grade for the knowledge test will be specified by the Administrator.
To register for any Aircrew Knowledge Test, an applicant needs to obtain an FAA Tracking Number (FTN).
Applicants create an account on the Integrated Aircrew Certification and Rating Application (IACRA) web page to obtain an FTN.
A list of acceptable documents used to provide proper identification can be found in AC 61-65H
For the most current Aircrew Knowledge Testing General Requirements, refer to the
Achieving a score of 70% or better is required to be satisfactory for passing the certification knowledge test.
Retaking the sUAS certification knowledge test after a failure involves the following:
- 14 CFR 107.71 specifies that an applicant who fails the knowledge test may not retake that knowledge test for 14 calender days from the date of the previous failure
- An applicant retesting after failure is required to submit the applicable AKTR indicating failure to the aircrew knowledge testing center prior to retesting
- No instructor endorsement or other form of written authorization is required to retest after failure
An applicant for a knowledge test who fails that test may not reapply for the test for 14 calendar days after failing the test.
Aircrew Knowledge Testing Centers
FAA testing vendor, PSI Services, LLC, operates hundreds of testing centers that offer a full range of aircrew knowledge tests. You may complete registration online. You choose a testing center, and make financial arrangements for test payment. You may register for test(s) several weeks in advance, and you may cancel in accordance with the testing center's cancellation policy.
Knowledge Test Procedures and Tips
Before starting the actual test, the testing center provides an opportunity to practice navigating through the test. This practice or tutorial session may include sample questions to familiarize the applicant with the look and feel of the software (e.g., selecting an answer, marking a question for later review, monitoring time remaining for the test, and other features of the testing software).
The applicant may use certain aids, reference materials, and test materials, as long as the material conforms to the following criteria and does not include actual test questions or answers:
When taking a knowledge test, please keep the following points in mind:
1. Carefully read the instructions provided with the test.
2. Answer each question in accordance with the latest regulations and guidance publications.
3. Read each question carefully before looking at the answer options. You should clearly understand the problem before trying to solve it.
4. After formulating a response, determine which answer option corresponds with your answer. The answer you choose should completely solve the problem.
5. Remember that only one answer is complete and correct. The other possible answers are either incomplete or erroneous.
6. If a certain question is difficult for you, mark it for review and return to it after you have answered the less difficult questions. This procedure enables you to use the available time to maximum advantage.
7. When solving a calculation problem, be sure to read all the associated notes.
8. For questions involving use of a graph, you may request a printed copy that you can mark in computing your answer. This copy and all other notes and paperwork are given to the testing center upon completion of the test.
Cheating or Other Unauthorized Conduct
To avoid test compromise, computer testing centers follow security procedures described in FAA Order 8080.6H, Conduct of Aircrew Knowledge Tests. Testing centers terminate a test at any time a test unit member suspects cheating or unauthorized conduct as described in 14 CFR 61.37.
The FAA investigates and, if the agency determines that cheating or unauthorized conduct has occurred, any aircrew certificate or rating you hold may be revoked. You are also prohibited from applying for or taking any test for a certificate or rating under 14 CFR 107.69 for a period of one year.
(a) An applicant for a knowledge test may not:
(1) Copy or intentionally remove any knowledge test;
(2) Give to another applicant or receive from another applicant any part or copy of a knowledge test;
(3) Give or receive assistance on a knowledge test during the period that test is being given;
(4) Take any part of a knowledge test on behalf of another person;
(5) Be represented by, or represent, another person for a knowledge test;
(6) Use any material or aid during the period that the test is being given, unless specifically authorized to do so by the Administrator; and
(7) Intentionally cause, assist, or participate in any act prohibited by this paragraph.
(b) An applicant who the Administrator finds has committed an act prohibited by paragraph (a) of this section is prohibited, for 1 year after the date of committing that act, from:
(1) Applying for any certificate, rating, or authorization issued under this chapter; and
(2) Applying for and taking any test under this chapter.
(c) Any certificate or rating held by an applicant may be suspended or revoked if the Administrator finds that person has committed an act prohibited by paragraph (a) of this section.
Requests for Special Accommodations
An applicant may request approval to take an aircrew knowledge test with special accommodations. Reasonable accommodations, for testing applicants with disabilities, may be provided, in compliance with applicable law, including the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, and the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990.
The applicant’s request should include:
⦁ a copy of medical documentation, including the diagnosing physician’s name and contact information, verifying the applicant has a learning or reading disability; and
⦁ the requested method of test administration.
Exemptions from 14 CFR
The following applies to requests for special accommodations if the applicant is unable to meet the eligibility requirements of 14 CFR:
⦁ An applicant not meeting regulatory requirements may submit a petition for exemption, from any 14 CFR regulation, in accordance with 14 CFR part 11.
Applying for a Remote Pilot Certificate with an sUAS Rating
Immediately upon completion of the certification knowledge test, the applicant receives a printed Aircrew Knowledge Test Report (AKTR) documenting the score. The applicant should retain the original AKTR.
When applying for a Remote Pilot Certificate with an sUAS rating, the AKTR with passing results is valid for 24 calendar months.
For tests taken prior to January 13, 2020, to obtain a replacement AKTR, the applicant should include a check or money order payable to the FAA in the amount of $12.00 and mail the request to:
Federal Aviation Administration
Aircrew Certification Branch, AFB-720
P.O. Box 25082
Oklahoma City, OK 73125
To obtain a copy of the application form or a list of the information required, please see the Aircrew Certification Branch webpage.
For tests taken on or after January 13, 2020, AKTRs may be reprinted from PSI Services, LLC.
How to Obtain the Remote Pilot Certificate
To obtain a Remote Pilot Certificate with an sUAS rating, choose one of the processes described below from 14 CFR Part 107.
⦁ Part 61 pilot certificate holders with a current flight review may follow any process.
⦁ If you are not a part 61 certificated pilot that has completed a flight review in the preceding 24 calendar months, then choose from the two columns on the left.
An applicant for a remote pilot certificate with a sUAS rating under this subpart must make the application in a form and manner acceptable to the Administrator.
(a) The application must include either:
(1) Evidence showing that the applicant passed an initial aeronautical knowledge test. If applying using a paper application, this evidence must be an aircrew knowledge test report showing passage of the knowledge test; or
(2) If a person holds a pilot certificate (other than a student pilot certificate) issued under part 61 of this chapter and meets the flight review requirements specified in §61.56, a certificate of completion of an initial training course under this part that covers the areas of knowledge specified in §107.74.
(b) If the application is being made pursuant to paragraph (a)(2) of this section:
(1) The application must be submitted to the responsible Flight Standards office, a designated pilot examiner, an aircrew certification representative for a pilot school, a certificated flight instructor, or other person authorized by the Administrator;
(2) The person accepting the application submission must verify the identity of the applicant in a manner acceptable to the Administrator; and
(3) The person making the application must, by logbook endorsement or other manner acceptable to the Administrator, show the applicant meets the flight review requirements specified in §61.56 of this chapter.
(a) A temporary remote pilot certificate with a small UAS rating is issued for up to 120 calendar days, at which time a permanent certificate will be issued to a person whom the Administrator finds qualified under this part.
(b) A temporary remote pilot certificate with a sUAS rating expires:
(1) On the expiration date shown on the certificate;
(2) Upon receipt of the permanent certificate; or
(3) Upon receipt of a notice that the certificate sought is denied or revoked.
An initial aeronautical knowledge test and recurrent training covers the following areas of knowledge:
(a) Applicable regulations relating to sUAS rating privileges, limitations, and flight operation;
(b) Airspace classification, operating requirements, and flight restrictions affecting sUA operation;
(c) Aviation weather sources and effects of weather on sUA performance;
(d) SUA loading;
(e) Emergency procedures;
(f) Crew resource management;
(g) Radio communication procedures;
(h) Determining the performance of the sUA;
(i) Physiological effects of drugs and alcohol;
(j) Aeronautical decision-making and judgment;
(k) Airport operations;
(l) Maintenance and preflight inspection procedures; and
(m) Operation at night.
Training for pilots who hold a pilot certificate (other than a student pilot certificate) issued under part 61 of this chapter and meet the flight review requirements specified in §61.56 covers the following areas of knowledge:
(a) Applicable regulations relating to sUAS rating privileges, limitations, and flight operation;
(b) Effects of weather on sUA performance;
(c) SUA loading;
(d) Emergency procedures;
(e) Crew resource management;
(f) Determining the performance of the sUA;
(g) Maintenance and preflight inspection procedures; and
(h) Operation at night.
6.1 Applicability. This chapter provides guidance regarding the aircrew certification requirements and procedures for persons acting as remote PIC of a sUAS operated in the NAS. In the aviation context, the FAA typically refers to “licensing” as “certification.”
6.2 Remote Pilot Certification. An individual exercising the authority of PIC in compliance with part 107 is considered a “remote PIC.” As such, prior to acting as remote PIC, an individual must obtain a Remote Pilot Certificate with a sUAS rating (§107.12).
(a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, no person may manipulate the flight controls of a sUAS unless:
(1) That person has a remote pilot certificate with a sUAS rating issued pursuant to subpart C of this part and satisfies the requirements of §107.65; or
(2) That person is under the direct supervision of a remote PIC and the remote PIC has the ability to immediately take direct control of the flight of the sUA.
(b) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, no person may act as a remote PIC unless that person has a remote pilot certificate with a sUAS rating issued pursuant to Subpart C of this part and satisfies the requirements of §107.65.
(c) The Administrator may, consistent with international standards, authorize an aircrew to operate a civil foreign-registered sUA without an FAA-issued remote pilot certificate with a sUAS rating.
6.3 Eligibility. Pursuant to the requirements of § 107.61, an individual applying for a Remote Pilot Certificate with a sUAS rating must meet the following eligibility requirements, as applicable:
- Be at least 16 years of age.
- Be able to read, speak, write, and understand the English language.
Note: Please refer to § 107.17 for sUAS operating prohibitions for an individual with known medical conditions.
- Be in a physical and mental condition that would not interfere with the safe operation of a sUAS.
- Pass the initial aeronautical knowledge test at an FAA-approved Knowledge Testing Center (KTC). However, an individual who already holds a pilot certificate issued under 14 CFR part 61, other than a student pilot certificate, and meets the flight review requirements specified in part 61, § 61.56 is only required to complete successfully a part 107 online training. For more information concerning aeronautical knowledge tests and training, see paragraphs 6.7 and 6.8.
No person may manipulate the flight controls of a sUAS or act as a remote PIC, visual observer, or direct participant in the operation of the sUA if he or she knows or has reason to know that he or she has a physical or mental condition that would interfere with the safe operation of the sUAS.
6.4 Application Process. This paragraph provides guidance on how an individual can apply for a Remote Pilot Certificate (§ 107.63).
6.4.1 Remote Pilot Applicants Without Part 61 Certificates. An individual who does not hold a part 61 pilot certificate or a part 61 certificate holder who does not meet the flight review requirements specified in § 61.56 must use the following process. A part 61 pilot who meets the flight review requirements specified in § 61.56 may elect to use this process.
1.Pass an initial aeronautical knowledge test administered at a KTC (see paragraphs 6.7 and 6.8).
2. Complete and submit the Remote Pilot Certificate and/or Rating Application for a Remote Pilot Certificate (FAA Form 8710-13).
Option 1 (Online Form): This is the fastest and simplest method. The FAA Form 8710-13 application should be completed online using the electronic FAA
Integrated Aircrew Certificate and Rating Application (IACRA) system. An
applicant seeking a Remote Pilot Certificate must have already passed an initial Remote Pilot aeronautical knowledge test. Once registered with IACRA, the applicant will log in with his or her
username and password. Click on “Start New Application” and (1) Application Type: “Pilot,” (2) Certifications: “Initial Remote Pilot,” (3) “Other Path Information,” and
(4) “Start Application.” Continue through the application process and, when prompted, the applicant may select the knowledge test information provided or enter the 17-digit Knowledge Test Exam ID from the knowledge test in IACRA. Knowledge Test Reports upload immediately to the IACRA system. This allows processing the application for certification without any delay after passing the test. The KTC test proctor verifies the identity of the applicant. Once the applicant completes the online application in IACRA, the applicant signs the application electronically and submits it to the Aircrew Registry for processing. No FAA representative will be required to sign the application if the applicant was able to self-certify.
Note: When an applicant seeking a Remote Pilot Certificate uses this online option, the application transmits electronically from the applicant to the Aircrew Registry. The only electronic signature reflected on the IACRA application will be the applicant’s. The Registry confirms basic aircrew information with the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) prior to generating a Temporary Aircrew Certificate. Once completed, the applicant receives a confirmation email allowing the applicant to log into the IACRA system and print a copy of the temporary certificate.
Option 2 (Paper Application): An applicant seeking a Remote Pilot Certificate could also submit a paper application. If the applicant chooses the paper method, the original Remote Pilot initial aeronautical knowledge test report must be mailed with the application to the following address:
Aircrew Certification Branch (AFB-720) P.O. Box 25082
Oklahoma City, OK 73125
Note: A Temporary Aircrew Certificate will not be provided to the remote pilot applicant if the applicant does not hold a part 61 certificate. For this reason, it would be in the applicant’s best interest to utilize Option 1 (IACRA system) instead of the paper method, in order to receive a Temporary Aircrew Certificate once the application has completed the TSA vetting process.
3. Receive permanent Remote Pilot Certificate once all other FAA internal processing is complete.
6.4.2 Applicants with Part 61 Certificates. Instead of the process described above, an individual who holds a part 61 pilot certificate, other than a student pilot certificate, and meets the flight review requirements specified in § 61.56 may elect to apply using the following process:
1. Complete the online Part 107 SUAS training located within the FAA Safety Team (FAASTeam) website and receive a completion certificate.
2. Complete the Remote Pilot Certificate and/or Rating Application for a Remote Pilot Certificate (FAA Form 8710-13).
Option 1 (Online Application): In almost all cases, the application should be completed online using the electronic FAA IACRA system. The applicant must include verification that the applicant completed the online training or passed an initial aeronautical knowledge test. The applicable official document(s) must be uploaded into IACRA either by the applicant or the certifying official.
Option 2 (Paper): The application may be completed on paper. Using this method, the certificate of completion for the online training must be included with the application. A part 61 pilot, who also meets the requirements of § 61.56, may also take the knowledge test for initial certification. If a part 61 pilot decides to take the knowledge test, the pilot must also include the knowledge test report with their paper application. Please note that the processing time will be increased if a paper application is used.
3. Contact a certifying official such as the local Flight Standards District Office (FSDO), FAA Designated Pilot Examiner (DPE), an Aircrew Certification Representative (ACR), or a certificated flight instructor (CFI) to make an appointment to validate the applicant’s identification. The applicant must present the completed FAA Form 8710-13 along with the online training completion certificate or knowledge test report (as applicable) and proof of meeting the flight review requirements specified in § 61.56. The FAA Form 8710-13 application will be signed by the applicant after the certifying official examines the applicant’s photo identification and verifies the applicant’s identity. The FAA representative will then sign the application. The identification presented must include a photograph of the applicant, the applicant’s signature, and the applicant’s actual residential address (if different from the mailing address). This information may be presented in more than one form of identification. Acceptable methods of identification include, but are not limited to U.S. drivers’ licenses, government identification cards, passports, and military identification cards (see Appendix D, Remote Pilot Certification and Applicant Identity Verification). If using paper or IACRA method, an appropriate FSDO representative, a DPE, or an ACR will issue the applicant a Temporary Aircrew Certificate.
Note: A CFI is not authorized to issue a temporary certificate. The applicant can print his or her own Temporary Aircrew Certificate after receiving an email from the FAA notifying the applicant that it is available. The FSDO signs and mails the application to the Aircrew Certification Branch for the issuance of the permanent certificate. Flight instructors may refer to AC 61-141.
6.5 Security Disqualification. After the FAA receives the application, the TSA will vet the applicant prior to issuance of a temporary Remote Pilot Certificate. If the vetting is successful, the FAA will issue a permanent Remote Pilot Certificate. If the vetting is not successful, the applicant will be disqualified and a temporary or permanent pilot certificate will not be issued. Individuals who believe they improperly failed a security threat assessment may appeal the decision to the TSA.
6.6 FAA Tracking Number (FTN) Requirement. Beginning January 13, 2020, all applicants must establish an FTN within IACRA before taking any FAA aircrew knowledge test.
This identification number will be printed on the applicant’s Aircrew Knowledge Test Report (AKTR) in replacement of the Applicant ID number.
To register for an FTN in IACRA, applicants will need to visit the IACRA website and follow the instructions provided.
You can access IACRA
Once you have your FTN, you can register to take your FAA Aircrew Knowledge Test by going to the following registration and scheduling website operated by PSI Services LLC
You can find FTN Frequently Asked Questions (and Answers)
6.7 Aeronautical Knowledge Test. The FAA publishes the Remote Pilot – SUAS Aircrew Certification Standards (ACS) that provides the standards for the Knowledge Test. Materials helpful for preparation - Chapter 2, References, lists FAA publications and online resources that will assist in preparing for remote pilot certification.
Note: The following information regarding the knowledge test applies to individuals who do not hold a current part 61 aircrew certificate.
6.7.1 Knowledge Test. As described in paragraph 6.4, an individual applying for a Remote Pilot Certificate with a sUAS rating must pass an initial aeronautical knowledge test given at an FAA-approved KTC. In order to take an aeronautical knowledge test, an applicant must schedule an appointment with the KTC. On the day of scheduled testing, the applicant must provide proper government-issued photo identification to KTC. The location of the closest KTC can be found at https://faa.psiexams.com/FAA/login. The knowledge test will cover the aeronautical knowledge areas listed below:
Applicable regulations relating to sUAS rating privileges, limitations, and flight operation;
Airspace classification, operating requirements, and flight restrictions affecting sUA operations;
Aviation weather sources and effects of weather on sUA performance;
Crew resource management (CRM);
Radio communication procedures;
Determining the performance of the sUA;
Physiological effects of drugs and alcohol;
Aeronautical decision-making (ADM) and judgment;
Maintenance and preflight inspection procedures; and
Operation at night.
18.104.22.168. A part 61 certificate holder who meets the flight review requirements specified in § 61.56 may complete training instead of taking the knowledge test (see paragraph 6.7). This training includes the following topics:
Applicable regulations relating to sUAS rating privileges, limitations, and flight operation;
Effects of weather on sUA performance;
Determining the performance of sUA;
Maintenance and preflight inspection procedures; and
Operation at night.
6.7.2 Recurrent Training. After an individual receives a Remote Pilot Certificate with a sUAS rating, that individual must retain the level of knowledge required to safely operate a sUAS in the NAS. To continue exercising the privileges of a Remote Pilot Certificate, the certificate holder must successfully complete recurrent training within 24 calendar-months of passing either an initial knowledge test or initial knowledge training. Figure 6-1, Recurrent Training Cycle Examples, illustrates an individual’s potential renewal cycles.
6.8 Aeronautical Knowledge Training. This paragraph is applicable to individuals who hold a part 61 aircrew certificate, other than a student pilot certificate, and meet the flight review requirements specified in § 61.56.
6.8.1 Training. As described in paragraph 6.7, an individual who holds a part 61 aircrew certificate, other than a student pilot certificate, and meets the flight review requirements specified in § 61.56 may complete training instead of the initial knowledge test. The training can be taken online at https://www.faasafety.gov. The FAA offers options for training completion in addition to those available on https://www.faasafety.gov. Other options include completion of special pilot proficiency programs, such as an FAA-provided WINGS course specific to sUAS operations. These programs will offer tools and resources to strengthen decision-making skills and enable the remote pilot to continue to ensure he or she operates safely within the bounds of part 107.
After receiving a part 107 remote pilot certificate with an sUAS rating, how often must you satisfy recurrent training requirements?
(a) Change of name. An application to change the name on a certificate issued under this subpart must be accompanied by the applicant's:
(1) Remote pilot certificate with sUAS rating; and
(2) A copy of the marriage license, court order, or other document verifying the name change.
(b) The documents in paragraph (a) of this section will be returned to the applicant after inspection.
(c) Change of address. The holder of a remote pilot certificate with sUAS rating issued under this subpart who has made a change in permanent mailing address may not, after 30 days from that date, exercise the privileges of the certificate unless the holder has notified the FAA of the change in address using one of the following methods:
(1) By letter to the FAA Aircrew Certification Branch, P.O. Box 25082, Oklahoma City, OK 73125 providing the new permanent mailing address, or if the permanent mailing address includes a post office box number, then the holder's current residential address; or
(2) By using the FAA Web site portal at www.faa.gov providing the new permanent mailing address, or if the permanent mailing address includes a post office box number, then the holder's current residential address.
(a) The holder of a certificate issued under this subpart may voluntarily surrender it for cancellation.
(b) Any request made under paragraph (a) of this section must include the following signed statement or its equivalent: “I voluntarily surrender my remote pilot certificate with a sUAS rating for cancellation. This request is made for my own reasons, with full knowledge that my certificate will not be reissued to me unless I again complete the requirements specified in §§107.61 and 107.63.”
Note the coding for each of the knowledge elements above.
I have categorized the pertinent study material using these codes.
Start reading, making notes, assimilating, do whatever aids your recall.
Have fun and enjoy the ride!
Sarah Nilsson, J.D., Ph.D., MAS
602 561 8665
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