Use of Resources
To make informed decisions during flight operations, a pilot must also become aware of the available resources. Since useful tools and sources of information may not always be readily apparent, learning to recognize these resources is an essential part of ADM training. Resources must not only be identified, but a pilot must also develop the skills to evaluate whether there is time to use a particular resource and the impact its use will have upon the safety of flight.
Situational awareness is the accurate perception and understanding of all the factors and conditions within the five fundamental risk elements (flight, pilot, aircraft, environment, and type of operation that comprise any given aviation situation) that affect safety before, during, and after the flight. Monitoring radio communications for traffic, weather discussion, and ATC communication can enhance situational awareness by helping the pilot develop a mental picture of what is happening.
Maintaining situational awareness requires an understanding of the relative significance of all flight related factors and their future impact on the flight. When a pilot understands what is going on and has an overview of the total operation, he or she is not fixated on one perceived significant factor. Not only is it important for a pilot to know the aircraft’s geographical location, it is also important he or she understand what is happening. For instance, while flying above Richmond, Virginia, toward Dulles Airport or Leesburg, the pilot should know why he or she is being vectored and be able to anticipate spatial location. A pilot who is simply making turns without understanding why has added an additional burden to his or her management in the event of an emergency. To maintain situational awareness, all of the skills involved in ADM are used.
Obstacles to Maintaining Situational Awareness
Fatigue, stress, and work overload can cause a pilot to fixate on a single perceived important item and reduce an overall situational awareness of the flight. A contributing factor in many accidents is a distraction that diverts the pilot’s attention from monitoring the instruments or scanning outside the aircraft. Many flight deck distractions begin as a minor problem, such as a gauge that is not reading correctly, but result in accidents as the pilot diverts attention to the perceived problem and neglects to properly control the aircraft.
Effective workload management ensures essential operations are accomplished by planning, prioritizing, and sequencing tasks to avoid work overload. [Figure 17-16] As experience is gained, a pilot learns to recognize future workload requirements and can prepare for high workload periods during times of low workload. Reviewing the appropriate chart and setting radio frequencies well in advance of when they are needed helps reduce workload as the flight nears the airport. In addition, a pilot should listen to ATIS, Automated Surface Observing System (ASOS), or Automated Weather Observing System (AWOS), if available, and then monitor the tower frequency or Common Traffic Advisory Frequency (CTAF) to get a good idea of what traffic conditions to expect. Checklists should be performed well in advance so there is time to focus on traffic and ATC instructions. These procedures are especially important prior to entering a high-density traffic area, such as Class B airspace.
Recognizing a work overload situation is also an important component of managing workload. The first effect of high workload is that the pilot may be working harder but accomplishing less. As workload increases, attention cannot be devoted to several tasks at one time, and the pilot may begin to focus on one item. When a pilot becomes task saturated, there is no awareness of input from various sources, so decisions may be made on incomplete information and the possibility of error increases. [Figure 17-17]
When a work overload situation exists, a pilot needs to stop, think, slow down, and prioritize. It is important to understand how to decrease workload.
When a work overload situation exists, a pilot needs to stop, think, slow down, and prioritize. It is important to understand how to decrease workload. For example, in the case of the cabin door that opened in VFR flight, the impact on workload should be insignificant. If the cabin door opens under IFR different conditions, its impact on workload will change. Therefore, placing a situation in the proper perspective, remaining calm, and thinking rationally are key elements in reducing stress and increasing the capacity to fly safely. This ability depends upon experience, discipline, and training.
The ability to manage risk begins with preparation. Here are some things a pilot can do to manage overall risk:
- Assess the flight’s risk based upon experience. Use some form of risk assessment. For example, if the weather is marginal and the pilot has low IMC training, it is probably a good idea to cancel the flight.
- Brief passengers using the SAFETY list:
S - Seat belts fastened for taxi, takeoff, landing
Shoulder harness fastened for takeoff, landing
Seat position adjusted and locked in place
A - Air vents (location and operation)
All environmental controls (discussed)
Action in case of any passenger discomfort
F - Fire extinguisher (location and operation)
E - Exit doors (how to secure; how to open)
Emergency evacuation plan
Emergency/survival kit (location and contents)
T - Traffic (scanning, spotting, notifying pilot)
Talking, (“sterile flight deck” expectations)
Y - Your questions? (Speak up!)
- In addition to the SAFETY list, discuss with passengers whether or not smoking is permitted, flight route altitudes, time en route, destination, weather during flight, expected weather at the destination, controls and what they do, and the general capabilities and limitations of the aircraft.
- Use a sterile flight deck (one that is completely silent with no pilot communication with passengers or by passengers) from the time of departure to the first intermediate altitude and clearance from the local airspace.
- Use a sterile flight deck during arrival from the first radar vector for approach or descent for the approach.
- Keep the passengers informed during times when the workload is low.
- Consider using the passenger in the right seat for simple tasks such as holding the chart. This relieves the pilot of a task.
Why are human conditions, such as fatigue, complacency and stress, so important in aviation? These conditions, along with many others, are called human factors. Human factors directly cause or contribute to many aviation accidents and have been documented as a primary contributor to more than 70 percent of aircraft accidents.
Typically, human factor incidents/accidents are associated with flight operations but recently have also become a major concern in aviation maintenance and air traffic management as well. Over the past several years, the FAA has made the study and research of human factors a top priority by working closely with engineers, pilots, mechanics, and ATC to apply the latest knowledge about human factors in an effort to help operators and maintainers improve safety and efficiency in their daily operations.
Human factors science, or human factors technologies, is a multidisciplinary field incorporating contributions from psychology, engineering, industrial design, statistics, operations research, and anthropometry. It is a term that covers the science of understanding the properties of human capability, the application of this understanding to the design, development and deployment of systems and services, and the art of ensuring successful application of human factor principles into all aspects of aviation to include pilots, ATC, and aviation maintenance. Human factors is often considered synonymous with CRM or maintenance resource management (MRM) but is really much broader in both its knowledge base and scope. Human factors involves gathering research specific to certain situations (i.e., flight, maintenance, stress levels, knowledge) about human abilities, limitations, and other characteristics and applying it to tool design, machines, systems, tasks, jobs, and environments to produce safe, comfortable, and effective human use. The entire aviation community benefits greatly from human factors research and development as it helps better understand how humans can most safely and efficiently perform their jobs and improve the tools and systems in which they interact.
The Decision-Making Process
An understanding of the decision-making process provides the pilot with a foundation for developing ADM and SRM skills. While some situations, such as engine failure, require an immediate pilot response using established procedures, there is usually time during a flight to analyze any changes that occur, gather information, and assess risks before reaching a decision.
Risk management and risk intervention is much more than the simple definitions of the terms might suggest. Risk management and risk intervention are decision-making processes designed to systematically identify hazards, assess the degree of risk, and determine the best course of action. These processes involve the identification of hazards, followed by assessments of the risks, analysis of the controls, making control decisions, using the controls, and monitoring the results.
The steps leading to this decision constitute a decision-making process. Three models of a structured framework for problem-solving and decision-making are the 5P, the 3P using PAVE, CARE and TEAM, and the DECIDE models. They provide assistance in organizing the decision process. All these models have been identified as helpful to the single pilot in organizing critical decisions.
Single-Pilot Resource Management (SRM)
Single-Pilot Resource Management (SRM) is about how to gather information, analyze it, and make decisions. Learning how to identify problems, analyze the information, and make informed and timely decisions is not as straightforward as the training involved in learning specific maneuvers. Learning how to judge a situation and “how to think” in the endless variety of situations encountered while flying out in the “real world” is more difficult.
There is no one right answer in ADM, rather each pilot is expected to analyze each situation in light of experience level, personal minimums, and current physical and mental readiness level, and make his or her own decision.
Perceive, Process, Perform (3P) Model
The Perceive, Process, Perform (3P) model for ADM offers a simple, practical, and systematic approach that can be used during all phases of flight. To use it, the pilot will:
- Perceive the given set of circumstances for a flight
- Process by evaluating their impact on flight safety
- Perform by implementing the best course of action
Use the Perceive, Process, Perform, and Evaluate method as a continuous model for every aeronautical decision that you make. Although human beings will inevitably make mistakes, anything that you can do to recognize and minimize potential threats to your safety will make you a better pilot.
Depending upon the nature of the activity and the time available, risk management processing can take place in any of three timeframes. [Figure 10-3] Most flight training activities take place in the “time-critical” timeframe for risk management. The six steps of risk management can be combined into an easy-to-remember 3P model for practical risk management: Perceive, Process, Perform with the PAVE, CARE and TEAM checklists. Pilots can help perceive hazards by using the PAVE checklist of: Pilot, Aircraft, enVironment, and External pressures. They can process hazards by using the CARE checklist of: Consequences, Alternatives, Reality, External factors. Finally, pilots can perform risk management by using the TEAM choice list of: Transfer, Eliminate, Accept, or Mitigate.
PAVE Checklist: Identify Hazards and Personal Minimums
In the first step, the goal is to develop situational awareness by perceiving hazards, which are present events, objects, or circumstances that could contribute to an undesired future event. In this step, the pilot will systematically identify and list hazards associated with all aspects of the flight: Pilot, Aircraft, enVironment, and External pressures, which makes up the PAVE checklist. [Figure 10-4] All four elements combine and interact to create a unique situation for any flight. Pay special attention to the pilot-aircraft combination, and consider whether the combined “pilot-aircraft team” is capable of the mission you want to fly. For example, you may be a very experienced and proficient pilot, but your weather flying ability is still limited if you are flying an unfamiliar aircraft. On the other hand, you may have a new technically advanced aircraft that you have flown for a considerable amount of time.
Decision-Making in a Dynamic Environment
A solid approach to decision-making is through the use of analytical models, such as the 5 Ps, 3P, and DECIDE. Good decisions result when pilots gather all available information, review it, analyze the options, rate the options, select a course of action, and evaluate that course of action for correctness.
In some situations, there is not always time to make decisions based on analytical decision-making skills. A good example is a quarterback whose actions are based upon a highly fluid and changing situation. He intends to execute a plan, but new circumstances dictate decision-making on the fly. This type of decision-making is called automatic decision-making or naturalized decision-making.
For the past several decades, research into how people actually make decisions has revealed that when pressed for time, experts faced with a task loaded with uncertainty first assess whether the situation strikes them as familiar. Rather than comparing the pros and cons of different approaches, they quickly imagine how one or a few possible courses of action in such situations will play out.
Experts take the first workable option they can find. While it may not be the best of all possible choices, it often yields remarkably good results.
The terms “naturalistic” and “automatic decision-making” have been coined to describe this type of decision-making. The ability to make automatic decisions holds true for a range of experts from firefighters to chess players. It appears the expert’s ability hinges on the recognition of patterns and consistencies that clarify options in complex situations. Experts appear to make provisional sense of a situation, without actually reaching a decision, by launching experience-based actions that in turn trigger creative revisions.
This is a reflexive type of decision-making anchored in training and experience and is most often used in times of emergencies when there is no time to practice analytical decision-making. Naturalistic or automatic decision-making improves with training and experience, and a pilot will find himself or herself using a combination of decision-making tools that correlate with individual experience and training.
Although more experienced pilots are likely to make more automatic decisions, there are tendencies or operational pitfalls that come with the development of pilot experience. These are classic behavioral traps into which pilots have been known to fall. More experienced pilots, as a rule, try to complete a flight as planned. The desire to meet these goals can have an adverse effect on safety and contribute to an unrealistic assessment of piloting skills. These dangerous tendencies or behavior patterns, which must be identified and eliminated, include the operational pitfalls shown in Figure 10-6.
Hazardous Attitudes and Antidotes
Being fit to fly depends on more than just a pilot’s physical condition and recent experience. For example, attitude will affect the quality of decisions. Attitude is a motivational predisposition to respond to people, situations, or events in a given manner. Studies have identified five hazardous attitudes that can interfere with the ability to make sound decisions and exercise authority properly: anti-authority, impulsivity, invulnerability, macho, and resignation. [Figure 17-3]
Hazardous attitudes contribute to poor pilot judgment but can be effectively counteracted by redirecting the hazardous attitude so that correct action can be taken. Recognition of hazardous thoughts is the first step toward neutralizing them. After recognizing a thought as hazardous, the pilot should label it as hazardous, then state the corresponding antidote.
Antidotes should be memorized for each of the hazardous attitudes so they automatically come to mind when needed.
Identify the hazardous attitude or characteristic a remote pilot displays while taking risks in order to impress others?
You have been hired as a Remote Pilot in Command by a local TV news station to film breaking news with a sUA. You expressed a safety concern and the station manager has instructed you to “hurry up and get it done”. What type of hazardous attitude does this attitude represent?
You have been hired as a remote pilot by a local TV news station to film breaking news with a small UA. You expressed a safety concern and the station manager has instructed you to “fly first, ask questions later.” What type of hazardous attitude does this attitude represent?
see previous page under ADM
Physiological/Medical Factors that Affect Pilot Performance
Important medical factors that a pilot should be aware of include the following:
- the effects of alcohol and drugs
Dehydration and Heatstroke
Dehydration is the term given to a critical loss of water from the body. Causes of dehydration are hot flight decks and flight lines, wind, humidity, and diuretic drinks—coffee, tea, alcohol, and caffeinated soft drinks. Some common signs of dehydration are headache, fatigue, cramps, sleepiness, and dizziness.
The first noticeable effect of dehydration is fatigue, which in turn makes top physical and mental performance difficult, if not impossible. Flying for long periods in hot summer temperatures or at high altitudes increases the susceptibility to dehydration because these conditions tend to increase the rate of water loss from the body.
To help prevent dehydration, drink two to four quarts of water every 24 hours. Since each person is physiologically different, this is only a guide. Most people are aware of the eight-glasses-a-day guide: If each glass of water is eight ounces, this equates to 64 ounces, which is two quarts. If this fluid is not replaced, fatigue progresses to dizziness, weakness, nausea, tingling of hands and feet, abdominal cramps, and extreme thirst.
The key for pilots is to be continually aware of their condition. Most people become thirsty with a 1.5 quart deficit, or a loss of 2 percent of total body weight. This level of dehydration triggers the “thirst mechanism.” The problem is that the thirst mechanism arrives too late and is turned off too easily. A small amount of fluid in the mouth will turn this mechanism off and the replacement of needed body fluid is delayed.
Other steps to prevent dehydration include:
- Carrying a container in order to measure daily water intake.
- Staying ahead—not relying on the thirst sensation as an alarm. If plain water is offensive, add some sport drink flavoring to make it more acceptable.
- Limiting daily intake of caffeine and alcohol (both are diuretics and stimulate increased production of urine).
Heatstroke is a condition caused by any inability of the body to control its temperature. Onset of this condition may be recognized by the symptoms of dehydration, but also has been known to be recognized only by complete collapse.
To prevent these symptoms, it is recommended that an ample supply of water be carried and used at frequent intervals on any long flight, whether thirsty or not. The body normally absorbs water at the rate of 1.2 to 1.5 quarts per hour. Individuals should drink one quart per hour for severe heat stress conditions or one pint per hour for moderate stress conditions. If the aircraft has a canopy or roof window, wearing light-colored, porous clothing and a hat will help provide protection from the sun. Keeping the flight deck well ventilated aids in dissipating excess heat.
The Federal Aviation Regulations include no specific references to medication usage. Title 14 of the CFR prohibits acting as PIC or in any other capacity as a required pilot flight crewmember, while that person:
1. Knows or has reason to know of any medical condition that would make the person unable to meet the requirement for the medical certificate necessary for the pilot operation, or
2. Is taking medication or receiving other treatment for a medical condition that results in the person being unable to meet the requirements for the medical certificate necessary for the pilot operation.
Further, 14 CFR part 107 and 14 CFR part 91, sections 91.17 and 91.19 prohibit the use of any drug that affects the person’s faculties in any way contrary to safety.
There are several thousand medications currently approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), not including OTC drugs. Virtually all medications have the potential for adverse side effects in some people. Additionally, herbal and dietary supplements, sport and energy boosters, and some other “natural” products are derived from substances often found in medications that could also have adverse side effects. While some individuals experience no side effects with a particular drug or product, others may be noticeably affected. The FAA regularly reviews FDA and other data to assure that medications found acceptable for aviation duties do not pose an adverse safety risk.
Some of the most commonly used OTC drugs, antihistamines and decongestants, have the potential to cause noticeable adverse side effects, including drowsiness and cognitive deficits. The symptoms associated with common upper respiratory infections, including the common cold, often suppress a pilot’s desire to fly, and treating symptoms with a drug that causes adverse side effects only compounds the problem. Particularly, medications containing diphenhydramine (e.g., Benadryl) are
known to cause drowsiness and have a prolonged half-life, meaning the drugs stay in one’s system for an extended time, which lengthens the time that side effects are present.
Prior to each and every flight, all pilots must do a proper physical self-assessment to ensure safety. A great mnemonic is IMSAFE, which stands for Illness, Medication, Stress, Alcohol, Fatigue, and Emotion.
For the medication component of IMSAFE, pilots need to ask themselves, “Am I taking any medicines that might affect my judgment or make me drowsy? For any new medication, OTC or prescribed, you should wait at least 48 hours after the first dose before flying to determine you do not have any adverse side effects that would make it unsafe to operate an aircraft. In addition to medication questions, pilots should also consider the following:
- Do not take any unnecessary or elective medications.
- Make sure you eat regular balanced meals.
- Bring a snack.
- Maintain good hydration - bring plenty of water.
- Ensure adequate sleep the night prior to the flight.
- Stay physically fit.
Alcohol impairs the efficiency of the human body. [Figure 16-8] Studies have proved that drinking and performance deterioration are closely linked. Pilots must make hundreds of decisions, some of them time-critical, during the course of a flight. The safe outcome of any flight depends on the ability to make the correct decisions and take the appropriate actions during routine occurrences, as well as abnormal situations. The influence of alcohol drastically reduces the chances of completing a flight without incident. Even in small amounts, alcohol can impair judgment, decrease sense of responsibility, affect coordination, constrict visual field, diminish memory, reduce reasoning power, and lower attention span. As little as one ounce of alcohol can decrease the speed and strength of muscular reflexes, lessen the efficiency of eye movements while reading, and increase the frequency at which errors are committed. Impairments in vision and hearing occur at alcohol blood levels due to as little as one drink.
The alcohol consumed in beer and mixed drinks is ethyl alcohol, a central nervous system depressant. From a medical point of view, it acts on the body much like a general anesthetic. The “dose” is generally much lower and more slowly consumed in the case of alcohol, but the basic effects on the human body are similar. Alcohol is easily and quickly absorbed by the digestive tract. The bloodstream absorbs about 80 to 90 percent of the alcohol in a drink within 30 minutes when ingested on an empty stomach. The body requires about 3 hours to rid itself of all the alcohol contained in one mixed drink or one beer.
While experiencing a hangover, a pilot is still under the influence of alcohol. Although a pilot may think he or she is functioning normally, motor and mental response impairment is still present. Considerable amounts of alcohol can remain in the body for over 16 hours, so pilots should be cautious about flying too soon after drinking.
Altitude multiplies the effects of alcohol on the brain. When combined with altitude, the alcohol from two drinks may have the same effect as three or four drinks. Alcohol interferes with the brain’s ability to utilize oxygen, producing a form of histotoxic hypoxia. The effects are rapid because alcohol passes quickly into the bloodstream. In addition, the brain is a highly vascular organ that is immediately sensitive to changes in the blood’s composition. For a pilot, the lower oxygen availability at altitude and the lower capability of the brain to use what oxygen is there, add up to a deadly combination.
Intoxication is determined by the amount of alcohol in the bloodstream. This is usually measured as a percentage by weight in the blood. 14 CFR part 91 requires that blood alcohol level be less than .04 percent and that 8 hours pass between drinking alcohol and piloting an airplane. A pilot with a blood alcohol level of .04 percent or greater after 8 hours cannot fly until the blood alcohol falls below that amount. Even though blood alcohol may be well below .04 percent, a pilot cannot fly sooner than 8 hours after drinking alcohol. Although the regulations are quite specific, it is a good idea to be more conservative than the regulations.
Which is true regarding the presence of alcohol within the human body?
Pilot performance can be seriously degraded by both prescription and over-the-counter medications, as well as by the medical conditions for which they are taken. Many medications, such as tranquilizers, sedatives, strong pain relievers, and cough suppressants have primary effects that may impair judgment, memory, alertness, coordination, vision, and the ability to make calculations. [Figure 16-9] Others, such as antihistamines, blood pressure drugs, muscle relaxants, and agents to control diarrhea and motion sickness have side effects that may impair the same critical functions. Any medication that depresses the nervous system, such as a sedative, tranquilizer, or antihistamine, can make a pilot more susceptible to hypoxia.
Painkillers are grouped into two broad categories: analgesics and anesthetics. Analgesics are drugs that reduce pain, while anesthetics are drugs that deaden pain or cause loss of consciousness.
Over-the-counter analgesics, such as acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin), acetaminophen (Tylenol), and ibuprofen (Advil) have few side effects when taken in the correct dosage. Although some people are allergic to certain analgesics or may suffer from stomach irritation, flying usually is not restricted when taking these drugs. However, flying is almost always precluded while using prescription analgesics, such as drugs containing propoxyphene (e.g., Darvon), oxycodone (e.g., Percodan), meperidine (e.g., Demerol), and codeine since these drugs are known to cause side effects such as mental confusion, dizziness, headaches, nausea, and vision problems.
Anesthetic drugs are commonly used for dental and surgical procedures. Most local anesthetics used for minor dental and outpatient procedures wear off within a relatively short period of time. The anesthetic itself may not limit flying as much as the actual procedure and subsequent pain.
Stimulants are drugs that excite the central nervous system and produce an increase in alertness and activity. Amphetamines, caffeine, and nicotine are all forms of stimulants. Common uses of these drugs include appetite suppression, fatigue reduction, and mood elevation. Some of these drugs may cause a stimulant reaction, even though this reaction is not their primary function. In some cases, stimulants can produce anxiety and mood swings, both of which are dangerous when flying.
Depressants are drugs that reduce the body’s functioning in many areas. These drugs lower blood pressure, reduce mental processing, and slow motor and reaction responses. There are several types of drugs that can cause a depressing effect on the body, including tranquilizers, motion sickness medication, some types of stomach medication, decongestants, and antihistamines. The most common depressant is alcohol.
Some drugs that are classified as neither stimulants nor depressants have adverse effects on flying. For example, some antibiotics can produce dangerous side effects, such as balance disorders, hearing loss, nausea, and vomiting. While many antibiotics are safe for use while flying, the infection requiring the antibiotic may prohibit flying. In addition, unless specifically prescribed by a physician, do not take more than one drug at a time, and never mix drugs with alcohol, because the effects are often unpredictable.
The dangers of illegal drugs also are well documented. Certain illegal drugs can have hallucinatory effects that occur days or weeks after the drug is taken. Obviously, these drugs have no place in the aviation community.
14 CFR prohibits pilots from performing crewmember duties while using any medication that affects the body in any way contrary to safety. The safest rule is not to fly as a crewmember while taking any medication, unless approved to do so by the FAA. If there is any doubt regarding the effects of any medication, consult an AME before flying.
Hyperventilation is the excessive rate and depth of respiration leading to abnormal loss of carbon dioxide from the blood. This condition occurs more often among pilots than is generally recognized. It seldom incapacitates completely, but it causes disturbing symptoms that can alarm the uninformed pilot. In such cases, increased breathing rate and anxiety further aggravate the problem. Hyperventilation can lead to unconsciousness due to the respiratory system’s overriding mechanism to regain control of breathing.
Pilots encountering an unexpected stressful situation may subconsciously increase their breathing rate. If flying at higher altitudes, either with or without oxygen, a pilot may have a tendency to breathe more rapidly than normal, which often leads to hyperventilation.
Since many of the symptoms of hyperventilation are similar to those of hypoxia, it is important to correctly diagnose and treat the proper condition. If using supplemental oxygen, check the equipment and flow rate to ensure the symptoms are not hypoxia related. Common symptoms of hyperventilation include:
- Visual impairment
- Lightheaded or dizzy sensation
- Tingling sensations
- Hot and cold sensations
- Muscle spasms
The treatment for hyperventilation involves restoring the proper carbon dioxide level in the body. Breathing normally is both the best prevention and the best cure for hyperventilation. In addition to slowing the breathing rate, breathing into a paper bag or talking aloud helps to overcome hyperventilation. Recovery is usually rapid once the breathing rate is returned to normal.
Everyone is stressed to some degree almost all of the time. A certain amount of stress is good since it keeps a person alert and prevents complacency. Effects of stress are cumulative and, if the pilot does not cope with them in an appropriate way, they can eventually add up to an intolerable burden. Performance generally increases with the onset of stress, peaks, and then begins to fall off rapidly as stress levels exceed a person’s ability to cope. The ability to make effective decisions during flight can be impaired by stress. There are two categories of stress—acute and chronic. These are both explained in Chapter 9, “Physiological Factors (Including Drugs and Alcohol) Affecting Pilot Performance,” of this study guide.
There are several techniques to help manage the accumulation of life stresses and prevent stress overload. For example, to help reduce stress levels, set aside time for relaxation each day or maintain a program of physical fitness. To prevent stress overload, learn to manage time more effectively to avoid pressures imposed by getting behind schedule and not meeting deadlines.
Stress is the body’s response to physical and psychological demands placed upon it. The body’s reaction to stress includes releasing chemical hormones (such as adrenaline) into the blood, and increasing metabolism to provide more energy to the muscles. Blood sugar, heart rate, respiration, blood pressure, and perspiration all increase. The term “stressor” is used to describe an element that causes an individual to experience stress. Examples of stressors include physical stress (noise or vibration), physiological stress (fatigue), and psychological stress (difficult work or personal situations).
Stress falls into two broad categories, acute (short term) and chronic (long term). Acute stress involves an immediate threat that is perceived as danger. This is the type of stress that triggers a “fight or flight” response in an individual, whether the threat is real or imagined. Normally, a healthy person can cope with acute stress and prevent stress overload. However, ongoing acute stress can develop into chronic stress.
Chronic stress can be defined as a level of stress that presents an intolerable burden, exceeds the ability of an individual to cope, and causes individual performance to fall sharply. Unrelenting psychological pressures, such as loneliness, financial worries, and relationship or work problems can produce a cumulative level of stress that exceeds a person’s ability to cope with the situation. When stress reaches these levels, performance falls off rapidly. Pilots experiencing this level of stress are not safe and should not exercise their aircrew privileges. Pilots who suspect they are suffering from chronic stress should consult a physician.
Fatigue is frequently associated with pilot error. Some of the effects of fatigue include degradation of attention and concentration, impaired coordination, and decreased ability to communicate. These factors seriously influence the ability to make effective decisions. Physical fatigue results from sleep loss, exercise, or physical work. Factors such as stress and prolonged performance of cognitive work result in mental fatigue.
Like stress, fatigue falls into two broad categories: acute and chronic. Acute fatigue is short term and is a normal occurrence in everyday living. It is the kind of tiredness people feel after a period of strenuous effort, excitement, or lack of sleep. Rest after exertion and 8 hours of sound sleep ordinarily cures this condition.
A special type of acute fatigue is skill fatigue. This type of fatigue has two main effects on performance:
- Timing disruption—Appearing to perform a task as usual, but the timing of each component is slightly off. This makes the pattern of the operation less smooth, because the pilot performs each component as though it were separate, instead of part of an integrated activity.
- Disruption of the perceptual field—Concentrating attention upon movements or objects in the center of vision and neglecting those in the periphery. This is accompanied by loss of accuracy and smoothness in control movements.
Acute fatigue has many causes, but the following are among the most important for the pilot:
- Mild hypoxia (oxygen deficiency)
- Physical stress
- Psychological stress
- Depletion of physical energy resulting from psychological stress
- Sustained psychological stress
Sustained psychological stress accelerates the glandular secretions that prepare the body for quick reactions during an emergency. These secretions make the circulatory and respiratory systems work harder, and the liver releases energy to provide the extra fuel needed for brain and muscle work. When this reserve energy supply is depleted, the body lapses into generalized and severe fatigue.
Acute fatigue can be prevented by proper diet and adequate rest and sleep. A well-balanced diet prevents the body from needing to consume its own tissues as an energy source. Adequate rest maintains the body’s store of vital energy.
Chronic fatigue, extending over a long period of time, usually has psychological roots, although an underlying disease is sometimes responsible. Continuous high stress levels produce chronic fatigue. Chronic fatigue is not relieved by proper diet and adequate rest and sleep, and usually requires treatment by a physician. An individual may experience this condition in the form of weakness, tiredness, palpitations of the heart, breathlessness, headaches, or irritability. Sometimes chronic fatigue even creates stomach or intestinal problems and generalized aches and pains throughout the body. When the condition becomes serious enough, it leads to emotional illness.
If suffering from acute fatigue, stay on the ground. If fatigue occurs in the flight deck, no amount of training or experience can overcome the detrimental effects. Getting adequate rest is the only way to prevent fatigue from occurring. Avoid flying without a full night’s rest, after working excessive hours, or after an especially exhausting or stressful day. Pilots who suspect they are suffering from chronic fatigue should consult a physician.
You are a remote pilot for a co-op energy service provider. You are to use your UA to inspect power lines in a remote area 15 hours away from your home office. After the drive, fatigue impacts your abilities to complete your assignment on time. Fatigue can be recognized
Vision in Flight
Of all the senses, vision is the most important for safe flight. Most of the things perceived while flying are visual or heavily supplemented by vision. As remarkable and vital as it is, vision is subject to limitations, such as illusions and blind spots. The more a pilot understands about the eyes and how they function, the easier it is to use vision effectively and compensate for potential problems.
The eye functions much like a camera. Its structure includes an aperture, a lens, a mechanism for focusing, and a surface for registering images. Light enters through the cornea at the front of the eyeball, travels through the lens, and falls on the retina. The retina contains light sensitive cells that convert light energy into electrical impulses that travel through nerves to the brain. The brain interprets the electrical signals to form images. There are two kinds of light-sensitive cells in the eyes: rods and cones. [Figure 16-12]
The cones are responsible for all color vision, from appreciating a glorious sunset to discerning the subtle shades in a fine painting. Cones are present throughout the retina, but are concentrated toward the center of the field of vision at the back of the retina. There is a small pit called the fovea where almost all the light sensing cells are cones. This is the area where most “looking” occurs (the center of the visual field where detail, color sensitivity, and resolution are highest).
While the cones and their associated nerves are well suited to detecting fine detail and color in high light levels, the rods are better able to detect movement and provide vision in dim light. The rods are unable to discern color but are very sensitive at low light levels. The trouble with rods is that a large amount of light overwhelms them, and they take a long time to “reset” and adapt to the dark again. There are so many cones in the fovea that the very center of the visual field hardly has virtually no rods at all. So in low light, the middle of the visual field is not very sensitive, but farther from the fovea, the rods are more numerous and provide the major portion of night vision.
The area where the optic nerve enters the eyeball has no rods or cones, leaving a blind spot in the field of vision. Normally, each eye compensates for the other’s blind spot. Figure 16-13 provides a dramatic example of the eye’s blind spot. Cover the right eye and hold this page at arm’s length. Focus the left eye on the X on the right side of the windshield and notice what happens to the airplane while slowly bringing the page closer to the eye.
Of the senses, vision is the most important for safe flight. However, various terrain features and atmospheric conditions can create optical illusions. These illusions are primarily associated with landing. Since pilots must transition from reliance on instruments to visual cues outside the flight deck for landing at the end of an instrument approach, it is imperative they be aware of the potential problems associated with these illusions, and take appropriate corrective action. The major illusions leading to landing errors are described below.
Runway Width Illusion
A narrower-than-usual runway can create an illusion the aircraft is at a higher altitude than it actually is, especially when runway length-to-width relationships are comparable. [Figure 16-7] The pilot who does not recognize this illusion will fly a lower approach, with the risk of striking objects along the approach path or landing short. A wider-than-usual runway can have the opposite effect, with the risk of the pilot leveling out the aircraft high and landing hard, or overshooting the runway.
Runway and Terrain Slopes Illusion
An upsloping runway, upsloping terrain, or both, can create an illusion that the aircraft is at a higher altitude than it actually is. [Figure 16-7] The pilot who does not recognize this illusion will fly a lower approach. Downsloping runways and downsloping approach terrain can have the opposite effect.
Featureless Terrain Illusion
An absence of surrounding ground features, as in an overwater approach, over darkened areas, or terrain made featureless by snow, can create an illusion the aircraft is at a higher altitude than it actually is. This illusion, sometimes referred to as the “black hole approach,” causes pilots to fly a lower approach than is desired.
Rain on the windscreen can create an illusion of being at a higher altitude due to the horizon appearing lower than it is. This can result in the pilot flying a lower approach.
Atmospheric haze can create an illusion of being at a greater distance and height from the runway. As a result, the pilot will have a tendency to be low on the approach. Conversely, extremely clear air (clear bright conditions of a high attitude airport) can give the pilot the illusion of being closer than he or she actually is, resulting in a high approach, which may result in an overshoot or go around. The diffusion of light due to water particles on the windshield can adversely affect depth perception. The lights and terrain features normally used to gauge height during landing become less effective for the pilot.
Flying into fog can create an illusion of pitching up. Pilots who do not recognize this illusion will often steepen the approach quite abruptly.
Ground Lighting Illusions
Lights along a straight path, such as a road or lights on moving trains, can be mistaken for runway and approach lights. Bright runway and approach lighting systems, especially where few lights illuminate the surrounding terrain, may create the illusion of less distance to the runway. The pilot who does not recognize this illusion will often fly a higher approach.
Vision and Flight
The more a pilot understands about the eyes and how they function, the easier it is to use vision effectively and compensate for potential problems.
To scan effectively, pilots must look from right to left or left to right. They should begin scanning at the greatest distance an object can be perceived (top) and move inward toward the position of the aircraft (bottom). For each stop, an area approximately 30° wide should be scanned. The duration of each stop is based on the degree of detail that is required, but no stop should last longer than 2 to 3 seconds. When moving from one viewing point to the next, pilots should overlap the previous field of view by 10°. [Figure 9-2]
Which technique should a remote pilot use to scan for traffic? A remote pilot should
The pilot is one of the risk factors in a flight. The pilot must ask, “Am I ready for this trip?” in terms of experience, recency, currency, physical and emotional condition. One of the best ways pilots can mitigate risk is to use the IMSAFE checklist to determine physical and mental readiness for flying:
1. Illness—Am I sick? Illness is an obvious pilot risk.
2. Medication—Am I taking any medicines that might affect my judgment or make me drowsy?
3. Stress—Am I under psychological pressure from the job? Do I have money, health, or family problems? Stress causes concentration and performance problems. While the regulations list medical conditions that require grounding, stress is not among them. The pilot should consider the effects of stress on performance.
4. Alcohol—Have I been drinking within 8 hours? Within 24 hours? As little as one ounce of liquor, one bottle of beer, or four ounces of wine can impair flying skills. Alcohol also renders a pilot more susceptible to disorientation and hypoxia.
5. Fatigue—Am I tired and not adequately rested? Fatigue continues to be one of the most insidious hazards to flight safety, as it may not be apparent to a pilot until serious errors are made.
6. Eating—Have I eaten enough of the proper foods to keep adequately nourished during the entire flight?
The night blind spot occurs:
When preparing for a night flight, what should an sUAS pilot be aware of after assembling and conducting a preflight of an aircraft while using a bright flashlight or work light?
APPENDIX C. SMALL UAS MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTION BEST PRACTICES
C.1 In the interest of assisting operators with varying background levels of sUAS knowledge and skill, below is a chart offering conditions that, if noticed during a preflight inspection or check, may support a determination that the sUA is not in a condition for safe operation. Further inspection to identify the scope of damage and extent of possible repair needed to remedy the unsafe condition may be necessary prior to flight.
C.2 For Category 4 maintenance requirements for operating in accordance with 14 CFR part 107, see Chapter 8, paragraph 220.127.116.11.
C.3 For Category 4 record retention requirements, see Chapter 8, paragraph 18.104.22.168.1.
Under what condition should the operator of a small UA establish scheduled maintenance protocol?
APPENDIX E. SAMPLE PREFLIGHT ASSESSMENT AND INSPECTION CHECKLIST
E.1 Sample Preflight Assessment and Inspection Checklist. Remote pilots may choose to use this checklist or develop their own for the operation of their specific sUAS.
1. Operating Environment:
a. Local Weather Conditions,
b. Local Airspace, ATC coordination/communication requirements, and any flight restrictions,
c. Identify the location of persons and property on the surface, and
d. Other ground hazards.
2. Crew Briefings:
a. Operating Conditions,
b. Purpose of Flight
c. Potential Hazards,
d. Emergency Procedures,
e. Contingency Procedures,
f. Crewmember Roles and Responsibilities, and
g. Human Factors (I.M.S.A.F.E).
3. Ensure all required documentation is available for inspection.
4. Verify all the manufacturer-required components that make up the sUAS are present and operating as designed.
5. Review Remote Pilot Operating Instructions (if applicable).
6. Complete Certificate of Waiver (CoW) review (if applicable). Review risk assessment and required mitigations.
7. Verify that the control station (CS) location, take-off and landing site(s), including emergency or alternate landing areas are suitable.
8. For operations that will not occur over human beings:
a. Consider whether lateral and vertical off-sets from human beings will be necessary to maintain safety of the operation.
b. Review and adjust the flightpath to ensure it accounts for any movement of human beings.
9. For operations that will occur over human beings:
a. Verify the sUA is eligible to conduct the intended category of operations over human beings.
b. Verify the sUA is clearly labeled for the intended category of operations over human beings.
c. If the sUA has undergone any modification, verify the manufacturer allowed such modifications as described in the remote pilot operating instructions.
d. Verify the sUA is properly configured and mode selected for the category of operations over human beings.
e. Consider whether the operational area can be considered an open-air assembly of persons.
f. For Category 3 operations:
i. Within or over a closed- or restricted-access site: May only operate the sUA above any human being if the operation is within or over a closed- or restricted-access site and any human being located within the closed- or restricted-access site is on notice that a sUA may fly over them.
ii. Not within or over a closed- or restricted-access site: May only operate the sUA above any human being if the operation does not maintain sustained flight over any person, unless the person is directly participating in the operation or located under a covered structure or inside a stationary vehicle.
iii. Ensure the sUA flightpath of the operation does not go over an open-air assembly of people.
10. Evaluate and use mitigations to prevent the remote pilot from becoming distracted or losing VLOS during flight operations.
11. Review sUA performance capabilities, considering density altitude and wind, to ensure positive control of the sUA can be maintained and at a safe distance over people, if applicable. The review should also include maintaining a clear flightpath while operating the sUA.
12. Visual condition inspection of the sUAS components.
13. Airframe structure (including undercarriage), all flight control surfaces, and linkages.
14. Registration markings, for proper display and legibility.
15. Moveable control surface(s), including airframe attachment point(s).
16. Servo motor(s), including attachment point(s).
17. Propulsion system, including powerplant(s), propeller(s), rotor(s), ducted fan(s), etc.
18. Check fuel for correct type and quantity.
19. Check that any equipment, such as a camera, is securely attached.
20. Verify all systems (e.g., aircraft and control unit) have an adequate power supply for the intended operation and are functioning properly.
21. Verify adequate communication between CS and sUA exists; check to ensure the sUAS has acquired GPS location from the minimum number of satellites specified by the manufacturer.
22. Verify correct indications from avionics, including control link transceiver, communication/navigation equipment, and antenna(s).
23. Check the display panel, if used, is functioning properly.
24. Check ground support equipment, including takeoff and landing systems, for proper operation.
25. Check for correct movement of control surfaces using the CS.
26. Check flight termination system, if installed (if applicable).
27. Check the anti-collision light is functioning and can be seen for at least 3 sm (for operations that will occur at civil twilight or night).
28. Calibrate sUAS compass, if required, prior to any flight.
29. Verify controller operation for heading and altitude.
30. Start the sUA propellers to inspect for any imbalance or irregular operation.
31. At a controlled low altitude, fly within range of any interference and recheck all controls and stability.
1. Evaluate sUAS to determine whether repairs are required prior to subsequent flights.
2. Conduct a review of the flight to include any crewmember(s) utilized. This review should consist of items, such as:
- Remote pilot and crewmember performance of assigned duties;
- Equipment malfunctions and anomalies;
- Whether the planned risk mitigation measures were effective or require revision;
- Unanticipated risks and hazards encountered during flight operations, and mitigations used; and
- Crewmember concerns and feedback to improve the safety of future flight operations.
The following document (available for download) was given as a guide by the FAA Safety Team to help with preflight inspection
According to 14 CFR Part 107, the responsibility to inspect the small UAS to ensure it is in a safe operating condition rests with the
see earlier up on this page under basic maintenance
Sarah Nilsson, J.D., Ph.D., MAS
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