Sarah Nilsson, JD, PhD, MAS
Sarah Nilsson, JD, PhD, MAS

Test Prep 2 - Regulations

UA.I.A.K1 - Applicability of 14 CFR Part 107 to small unmanned aircraft operations

14 CFR §107.1   Applicability.

(a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, this part applies to the registration, airman certification, and operation of civil small unmanned aircraft systems within the United States. This part also applies to the eligibility of civil small unmanned aircraft systems to operate over human beings in the United States.

(b) This part does not apply to the following:

(1) Air carrier operations;

(2) Any aircraft subject to the provisions of 49 U.S.C. 44809;

(3) Any operation that the holder of an exemption under section 333 of Public Law 112-95 or 49 U.S.C. 44807 elects to conduct pursuant to the exemption, unless otherwise specified in the exemption; or

(4) Any operation that a person elects to conduct under part 91 of this chapter with a small unmanned aircraft system that has been issued an airworthiness certificate.

 

 

AC 107-2A

4.1 Applicability. This chapter provides guidance regarding the applicability of part 107 to civil small unmanned aircraft operations conducted within the NAS. However, part 107 does not apply to the following: 

1. Limited recreational operations of UAS that occur in accordance with Title 49 of the United States Code (49 U.S.C.) § 448091

2. Operations conducted outside the United States; 

3. Amateur rockets; 

4. Moored balloons; 

5. Unmanned free balloons; 

6. Kites;

7. Public aircraft operations; and 

8. Air carrier operations. 

1 Title 49 U.S.C. § 44809(a) states that a person may operate a small unmanned aircraft without specific certification or operating authority from the FAA if the operation adheres to all of the following limitations: (1) the aircraft is flown strictly for recreational purposes; (2) the aircraft is operated in accordance with or within the programming of a community-based organization’s set of safety guidelines that are developed in coordination with the FAA; (3) the aircraft is flown within Visual Line of Sight (VLOS) of the person operating the aircraft or a visual observer (VO) co-located an in direct communication with the operator; (4) the aircraft is operated in a manner that does not interfere with and gives way to any manned aircraft; (5) in Class B, Class C, or Class D airspace or within the lateral boundaries of the surface area of Class E airspace designated for an airport, the operator obtains prior authorization from the Administrator or designee before operating and complies with all airspace restrictions and prohibitions; (6) in Class G airspace, the aircraft is flown from the surface to not more than 400 feet above ground level (AGL) and complies with all airspace restrictions and prohibitions; (7) the operator has passed an aeronautical knowledge and safety test described in § 44809(g) and maintains proof of test passage to be made available to the Administrator or law enforcement upon request; and (8) the aircraft is registered and marked in accordance with 49 U.S.C.

chapter 441 and proof of registration is made available to the Administrator or a designee of the Administrator or law enforcement upon request.

 

14 CFR §107.2   Applicability of certification procedures for products and articles.

The provisions of part 21 of this chapter do not apply to small unmanned aircraft systems operated under this part unless the small unmanned aircraft system will operate over human beings in accordance with §107.140.

 

You are operating a 1280g (2.8lb) quadcopter for your own enjoyment. Is this sUAS operation subject to 14 CFR Part 107?

  1. Yes, this sUAS operation is subject to part 107
  2. No, this sUAS operation is not subject to part 107 (unless you choose to operate wholly under part 107) 

 

You have accepted football tickets in exchange for using your sUAS to videotape the field before and after the game. Is this sUAS operation subject to 14 CFR Part 107?

  1. Yes, this sUAS operation is subject to part 107
  2. No, this sUAS operation is not subject to part 107

 

You plan to operate a 33lb sUAS to capture aerial imagery over real estate for use in sales listings. Is this sUAS operation subject to 14 CFR Part 107?

  1. Yes, this sUAS operation is subject to part 107
  2. No, this sUAS operation is not subject to part 107

 

Unmanned aircraft means an aircraft operated 

  1. Autonomously by onboard computers
  2. Without the possibility of direct human intervention from within or on the aircraft
  3. During search and rescue operations other than public

 

Which of the following operations require adherence to 14 CFR Part 107?

  1. Operating an sUAS for compensation
  2. Operations conducted outside the United States
  3. Flying a sUAS for enjoyment with family and friends

 

According to 14 CFR Part 107, an sUAS is an unmanned aircraft system weighing:

  1. Less than 55 lbs.
  2. 55kg or less
  3. 55 lbs.

 

Which of the following types of operations are excluded from the requirements in part 107?

  1. Recreational use of a sUAS for the operator’s enjoyment
  2. UAS used for motion picture filming
  3. Quadcopter capturing aerial imagery for crop monitoring

 

When operated under part 107, UA that weigh less than 0.55lbs must comply with Remote ID requirements.

  1. True
  2. False

UA.I.A.K2 - Definitions used in 14 CFR Part 107

14 CFR §107.3   Definitions.

The following definitions apply to this part. If there is a conflict between the definitions of this part and definitions specified in §1.1 of this chapter, the definitions in this part control for purposes of this part:

Control station means an interface used by the remote pilot to control the flight path of the small unmanned aircraft.

Corrective lenses means spectacles or contact lenses.

Declaration of compliance means a record submitted to the FAA that certifies the small unmanned aircraft conforms to the Category 2 or Category 3 requirements under subpart D of this part.

Small unmanned aircraft means an unmanned aircraft weighing less than 55 pounds on takeoff, including everything that is on board or otherwise attached to the aircraft.

Small unmanned aircraft system (small UAS) means a small unmanned aircraft and its associated elements (including communication links and the components that control the small unmanned aircraft) that are required for the safe and efficient operation of the small unmanned aircraft in the national airspace system.

Unmanned aircraft means an aircraft operated without the possibility of direct human intervention from within or on the aircraft.

Visual observer means a person who is designated by the remote pilot in command to assist the remote pilot in command and the person manipulating the flight controls of the small UAS to see and avoid other air traffic or objects aloft or on the ground.

 

AC 107-2A

4.2  Definitions. The following defined terms are used throughout this AC: 

4.2.1  Applicant. A person who submits a declaration of compliance (DOC) to the FAA for review and acceptance. An applicant may be anyone who designs, produces, or modifies a small unmanned aircraft. 

4.2.2  Control Station (CS). An interface used by the remote pilot or the person manipulating the controls to control the flightpath of the small unmanned aircraft. 

4.2.3  Corrective Lenses. Spectacles or contact lenses. 

4.2.4  Declaration of Compliance (DOC). A record submitted to the FAA that certifies the small unmanned aircraft conforms to the Category 2 or Category 3 requirements under part 107 subpart D, as described in Chapter 8, Small Unmanned Aircraft Over People. 

4.2.5  Means of Compliance (MOC). The method an applicant uses to show its small UAS would not exceed the applicable injury severity limit upon impact with a human being, does not contain any exposed rotating parts that would cause lacerations, and does not have any safety defects. 

4.2.6  Person Manipulating the Controls. A person other than the remote pilot in command (PIC) who is controlling the flight of a small unmanned aircraft under the supervision of the remote PIC. 

4.2.7  Remote Pilot in Command (Remote PIC or Remote Pilot). A person who holds a Remote Pilot Certificate with a small UAS rating and has the final authority and responsibility for the operation and safety of a small unmanned aircraft operation conducted under
part 107. 

4.2.8  Small Unmanned Aircraft. A small unmanned aircraft weighing less than 55 pounds, including everything that is on board or otherwise attached to the aircraft, and can be flown without the possibility of direct human intervention from within or on the aircraft. 

4.2.9  Small Unmanned Aircraft System (small UAS). A small unmanned aircraft and its associated elements (including communication links and the components that control the small unmanned aircraft) that are required for the safe and efficient operation of the small unmanned aircraft in the NAS. 

4.2.10  Unmanned Aircraft. An aircraft operated without the possibility of direct human intervention from within or on the aircraft (part 1, § 1.1). 

4.2.11  Visual Observer (VO). A person the remote PIC designates as a crewmember who assists the small unmanned aircraft remote PIC and the person manipulating the controls to see and avoid other air traffic or objects aloft or on the ground (part 107, § 107.3). 

4.2.12  Voluntary Consensus Standards Body. Voluntary consensus standards bodies are domestic or international organizations that plan, develop, establish, or coordinate voluntary standards using agreed-upon procedures. A voluntary consensus standards body observes principles such as openness, balance of interest, and due process. These bodies may include nonprofit organizations, industry associations, accredited standards developers, professional and technical societies, committees, task forces, or working groups.  

 

2021 April - Flight Standards Information Management System (FSIMS) - 8900.1

Volume 16. Unmanned Aircraft Systems

16-1-2-1    DEFINITIONS. The following definitions are used by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and many Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) organizations to describe relevant differences between UAS operations and those of manned aircraft. Other organizations, such as the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) and RTCA, Inc., have also developed acronyms and definitions that may differ from those used by the FAA.

A.    Aircraft. A device that is used or intended to be used for flight in the air.

Indicates new/changed information.

B.    Airworthy. UAS conformity to its type certificate (TC), if applicable, and has been determined to be in a condition for safe operation (Title 49 of the United States Code (49 U.S.C.) § 44704(d)(1)).

C.    Airworthiness Statement. Letter from a public UAS applicant specifying self-certification of a UAS in compliance with the criteria of the public entity.

Indicates new/changed information.

D.    Beyond Visual Line of Sight (BVLOS). The operation of a UAS beyond the capability of the flightcrew members (i.e., remote pilot in command (PIC)), the person manipulating the controls, and visual observer (VO), if used) to see the aircraft with vision unaided by any device other than corrective lenses (spectacles and contact lenses).

Indicates new/changed information.

E.    Certificate of Waiver or Authorization (CoW/A). A Certificate of Waiver (CoW) or Certificate of Authorization (CoA) is an FAA grant of approval for a specific flight operation or airspace authorization or waiver.

Indicates new/changed information.

F.    Chase Aircraft. A manned aircraft that carries its own PIC and a separate qualified VO flying in proximity to an unmanned aircraft (UA) for the purpose of providing a safety function, (i.e., see and avoid).

G.    Civil Aircraft. Aircraft other than public aircraft (Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 1, § 1.1; 49 U.S.C. § 40102(a)(16)).

H.    Civil Twilight. The period of time that begins 30 minutes before official sunrise and ends at official sunrise; and the period of time that begins at official sunset and ends 30 minutes after official sunset. In Alaska, the period of civil twilight is defined in the Air Almanac.

Indicates new/changed information.

I.    Control Station. An interface used by the remote pilot to control the operation and flightpath of the UA. The structure or system (ground-, ship-, or air-based) that controls the UAS and its interface to the aircraft, any sensor, and external systems.

J.    Cooperative Aircraft. Aircraft that have an electronic means of identification (i.e., a transponder or Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) transceiver) aboard in operation.

K.    Corrective Lenses. Spectacles or contact lenses.

Indicates new/changed information.

L.    Crewmember (UAS). A person assigned to perform an operational duty during operations. A UAS crewmember includes the remote PIC, person manipulating the controls, and VOs, but may include other persons as appropriate or required to ensure safe operation of the UAS (i.e., sensor operator, ground control station operator).

M.    Crew Resource Management (CRM). A management system to promote safety and enhance efficiency through the effective use of all available resources including human, hardware, software, and information resources.

N.    Daisy-Chaining. The use of multiple, successive VOs to extend the flight of a UA beyond the direct Visual Line of Sight (VLOS) of the PIC or VO.

O.    Data Link. A wireless communication channel between one control station and one UA. Its utility may include, but is not limited to, uplink Command and Control (C2) data, downlink telemetry, and payload data. A data link may consist of the following types:

1)    Uplink. The transmittal of data from the control station to the UA.
2)    Downlink. The transmittal of data from the UA to the control station.

Indicates new/changed information.

P.    Direct Control. The ability of a remote PIC to immediately take over the flight controls. For example, the operation could involve a “buddy box” type system that uses two control stations: one for the person manipulating the flight controls and one for the remote PIC that allows the remote PIC to override the other control station and immediately take direct control of the small unmanned aircraft. Another method could involve the remote PIC standing close enough to the person manipulating the flight controls so as to be able to physically take over the control station from the other person.

Q.    First Person View (FPV). The ability of flightcrew members to control the UAS without having direct VLOS of the UAS. Crewmembers utilize various vision-enhancing imagery methods, devices, or goggles to replace direct visual contact while controlling the UAS.

R.    Flight Termination. The intentional and deliberate process of terminating the flight in the event of lost link, loss of control, or other failure that compromises the safety of flight.

Indicates new/changed information.

S.    Flyaway. When the pilot is unable to effect control of the aircraft and, as a result, the UA is not operating in a predictable or planned manner.

T.    Indirect Control. The capability of a remote pilot to affect the trajectory of the aircraft through computer rather than sensory input to an onboard flight control system.

Indicates new/changed information.

U.    Lost Link. An interruption or loss of positive control between the control station and UA, or when the pilot is unable to effect control of the aircraft. Lost link is not considered a flyaway.

Indicates new/changed information.

V.    Lost Link Procedures. Preprogrammed or predetermined mitigations to ensure the continued safe operations of the UA in the event of lost link. In the event positive link cannot be achieved, flight termination must be implemented.

Indicates new/changed information.

W.    Low Altitude Authorization and Notification Capability (LAANC). A program that enables air traffic control (ATC) notifications and authorizations of UAS operations in controlled airspace and near airports.

X.    Model Aircraft. Per 14 CFR part 101, § 101.1(a)(5), a civil UA that is:

1)    Capable of sustained flight in the atmosphere;
2)    Flown within VLOS of the person operating the aircraft; and
3)    Flown exclusively for hobby or recreational purposes.

Indicates new/changed information.

Y.    Nationwide Community-Based Organization (CBO). A “membership-based association that represents the aeromodeling community within the Unites States; [and] provides its members a comprehensive set of safety guidelines that underscores safe aeromodeling operations within the National Airspace System (NAS) and the protection and safety of the general public on the ground.”

Indicates new/changed information.

Z.    Non-Cooperative Aircraft. Aircraft that do not have an electronic means of identification (e.g., a transponder) aboard or that have inoperative equipment because of malfunction or deliberate action.

Indicates new/changed information.

AA.    Off-Airport. Any location used to launch or recover aircraft that is not considered an airport (e.g., an open field).

Indicates new/changed information.

BB.    Optionally Piloted Aircraft (OPA). An aircraft having UAS technology that can be flown unmanned and retains the capability of being flown by a Pilot Onboard (PO) using conventional control methods.

CC.    Person Manipulating the Controls. A person other than the remote PIC who is controlling the flight of an sUAS under the supervision of the remote PIC.

DD.    Remote Pilot in Command (PIC). A person who holds a remote pilot certificate with an sUAS rating and has the final authority and responsibility for the operation and safety of an sUAS operation conducted under 14 CFR part 107.

Indicates new/changed information.

EE.    Public Aircraft. Title 49 U.S.C. § 40102(a)(41) provides the definition of “Public Aircraft” and § 40125 provides the qualifications for public aircraft status.

Indicates new/changed information.

FF.    Small Unmanned Aircraft. A UA weighing less than 55 pounds on takeoff, including everything that is onboard or otherwise attached to the aircraft.

Indicates new/changed information.

GG.    Small Unmanned Aircraft System (small UAS). A small unmanned aircraft and its associated elements (including communication links and the components that control the small unmanned aircraft) that are required for the safe and efficient operation of the small unmanned aircraft in the national airspace system.

HH.    Special Governmental Interest (SGI) CoW/A. Formerly called an eCOA or emergency COA. A temporary, emergency CoW/A that is issued to Public or Civil operators in cases where operations cannot be conducted under their existing COA, Memorandum of Agreement (MOA), or under part 107 including any waiver, to support a public interest.

II.    Tethered UAS. A UA that is restrained by a cable and attached to the ground or an object thereon.

JJ.    UAS Facility Maps (UASFM). Grid maps around airports in controlled airspace that depict the altitudes below which automatic requests for airspace authorization can be issued through LAANC.

KK.    Unmanned Aircraft (UA). An aircraft that is operated without the possibility of direct human intervention from within or on the aircraft.

Indicates new/changed information.

LL.    Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS). A UA and its associated elements (including communication links and the components that control the small UA) that are required for the safe and efficient operation of the small UA in the NAS.

MM.    Visual Line of Sight (VLOS). Operation of a UAS within the capability of any flightcrew member (i.e., remote PIC, the person manipulating the controls, and visual observer, if used) seeing the aircraft with vision unaided by any device other than corrective lenses, spectacles or contact lenses in order to know the UA’s location, determine the UA’s attitude, altitude, and direction of flight, observe the airspace for other air traffic or hazards, and determine that the UA does not endanger the life or property of another.

Indicates new/changed information.

NN.    Visual Observer (VO). A person who assists the remote PIC and the person manipulating the flight controls of the small UAS (if that person is not the remote PIC) to see and avoid other air traffic or objects aloft or on the ground. The VO must be able to effectively communicate:

•    The small UA location, attitude, and direction of flight;

•    The position of other aircraft or hazards in the airspace; and

•    The determination that the UA does not endanger the life or property of another.

16-1-2-3    ACRONYMS.

Figure 16-1-2A.  UAS Acronym List

Indicates new/changed information.Indicates new/changed information.Indicates new/changed information.

AC

Advisory Circular

AFPD

Air Force Policy Directive

AGC

Office of The Chief Counsel

AGL

Above Ground Level

AIM

Aeronautical Information Manual

ALoS

Acceptable Level of Safety

AMOC

Alternative Method of Compliance

AR

Army Regulations

ASI

Aviation Safety Inspector

ATC

Air Traffic Control

ATCAA

Air Traffic Control Assigned Airspace

ATCSCC

Air Traffic Control System Command Center

ATO

Air Traffic Organization

ATS

Air Traffic Service

AVS

Aviation Safety

BVLOS

Beyond Visual Line of Sight

C2

Command and Control Link

CFIT

Controlled Flight Into Terrain

CFR

Code of Federal Regulations

CoA

Certificate of Authorization

CoW

Certificate of Waiver

CoW/A

Certificate of Waiver or Authorization

CRM

Crew Resource Management

CS

Control Station

DCP

Divert/Contingency Point

DHS

Department of Homeland Security

DOD

Department of Defense

DSA

Detect, Sense, and Avoid System

FAA

Federal Aviation Administration

FCC

Federal Communications Commission

FHA

Fault Hazard Analysis

 

Figure 16-1-2A.  UAS Acronym List (Continued)

Indicates new/changed information.Indicates new/changed information.Indicates new/changed information.

FIR

Flight Information Region

FL

Flight Level

FPV

First Person View 

FSIMS

Flight Standards Information Management System

FTP

Flight Termination Point

FTS

Flight Termination System

GCS

Ground Control Station

GHz

Gigahertz

GMF

Government Master File

HQ

Headquarters (FAA)

IFR

Instrument Flight Rules

LAANC

Low Altitude Authorization and Notification Capability

LLP

Lost Link Point

LOA

Letter of Agreement

MIDO

Manufacturing Inspection District Office

MHz

Megahertz

MOA

Memorandum of Agreement

MSL

Mean Sea Level

NAS

National Airspace System

NASA

National Aeronautics and Space Administration

NAVAIRINST

Naval Air Systems Command Instruction

NM

Nautical Mile

NTIA

National Telecommunications and Information Administration

OPA

Optionally Piloted Aircraft

PIC

Pilot in Command

POC

Point of Contact

R&D

Research and Development

RF

Radio Frequency

RM

Risk Management

RNAV

Area Navigation

RTB

Return to Base

RVSM

Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum

 

Figure 16-1-2A.  UAS Acronym List (Continued)

Indicates new/changed information.Indicates new/changed information.

SM

Statute Mile

SRM

Safety Risk Management

SRMD

Safety Risk Management Document

SSI

Sensitive Security Information

STA

Special Temporary Authority

sUA

small Unmanned Aircraft

sUAS

small Unmanned Aircraft System

TAS

Traffic Advisory Systems

TC

Type Certificate

TCAS

Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System

UA

Unmanned Aircraft

UAS

Unmanned Aircraft System

UASFM

UAS Facility Maps

USC

United States Code

USCBP

U.S. Customs and Border Protection

USCG

U.S. Coast Guard

VFR

Visual Flight Rules

VMC

Visual Meteorological Conditions

VO

Visual Observer

 

UA.I.A.K3 - Ramifications of falsification, reproduction or alteration of a certificate, rating, authorization, record, or report

14 CFR §107.5   Falsification, reproduction, or alteration.

(a) No person may make or cause to be made—

(1) Any fraudulent or intentionally false record or report that is required to be made, kept, or used to show compliance with any requirement under this part.

(2) Any reproduction or alteration, for fraudulent purpose, of any certificate, rating, authorization, record or report under this part.

(b) The commission by any person of an act prohibited under paragraph (a) of this section is a basis for any of the following:

(1) Denial of an application for a remote pilot certificate or a certificate of waiver;

(2) Denial of a declaration of compliance;

(3) Suspension or revocation of any certificate, waiver, or declaration of compliance issued or accepted by the Administrator under this part and held by that person; or

(4) A civil penalty.

 

AC 107-2A

4.3 Falsification, Reproduction, or Alteration. The FAA relies on information provided by owners and remote pilots of small UAS when it authorizes operations or when it has to make a compliance determination. Accordingly, the United States government may take appropriate action against a small UAS owner, operator, remote PIC, applicant for a DOC, or anyone else who fraudulently or knowingly provides false records or reports, or otherwise reproduces or alters any records, reports, or other information for fraudulent purposes. Such action could include the FAA’s imposition of civil sanctions and the suspension or revocation of a certificate or waiver (§ 107.5). 

 

UA.I.A.K4 - Accident reporting

14 CFR §107.9   Accident reporting.

No later than 10 calendar days after an operation that meets the criteria of either paragraph (a) or (b) of this section, a remote pilot in command must report to the FAA, in a manner acceptable to the Administrator, any operation of the small unmanned aircraft involving at least:

(a) Serious injury to any person or any loss of consciousness; or

(b) Damage to any property, other than the small unmanned aircraft, unless one of the following conditions is satisfied:

(1) The cost of repair (including materials and labor) does not exceed $500; or

(2) The fair market value of the property does not exceed $500 in the event of total loss.

 

AC 107-2A

4.4 Accident Reporting. The remote PIC of the small unmanned aircraft is required to report an accident to the FAA within 10 days if it meets any of the following thresholds:

1. At least serious injury to any person or any loss of consciousness. A serious injury is an injury that qualifies as Level 3 or higher on the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) of the Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine (AAAM). The AIS is an anatomical scoring system that provides a means of ranking the severity of an injury and is widely used by emergency medical personnel. The FAA currently uses serious injury (AIS Level 3) as an injury threshold in other FAA regulations.

AIS 3 Example: A person requires hospitalization, but the injury can fully heal (including, but not limited to, head trauma, broken bone(s), or laceration(s) to the skin that requires suturing).

2. Damage to any property, other than the small unmanned aircraft, if the cost is greater than $500 to repair or replace the property (whichever is lower).

Example: A small unmanned aircraft damages a property with a fair market value of $200, and it would cost $600 to repair the damage. Because the fair market value is below $500, this accident is not required to be reported. Similarly, if the aircraft causes $200 worth of damage to property with a fair market value of $600, that accident is also not required to be reported because the repair cost is below $500 (§ 107.9).

 

4.4.1 Submitting the Report. The accident report must be made within 10 calendar-days of the operation that created the injury or damage. The report may be submitted to the appropriate FAA Regional Operations Center (ROC) electronically or by telephone. Electronic reporting can be completed. To make a report by phone, see Figure 4-1, FAA Regional Operations Centers Telephone List. Reports may also be made to the responsible Flight Standards office. The report should include the following information:

1. Small UAS remote PIC’s name and contact information;

2. Small UAS remote PIC’s FAA airman certificate number;

3. Small UAS registration number issued to the aircraft (FAA registration number);

4. Location of the accident;

5. Date of the accident;

6. Local time of the accident;

7. Whether any serious injury or fatality occurred;

8. Property damaged and extent of damage, if any or known; and

9. Description of what happened.

 

4.4.2 National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) Reporting. In addition to the report submitted to the ROC, and in accordance with the criteria established by the NTSB, certain small unmanned aircraft accidents must also be reported to the NTSB. NTSB’s regulations, codified at 49 CFR part 830, require immediate notification when an aircraft accident occurs. NTSB regulations define an “unmanned aircraft accident” as an occurrence associated with the operation of any public or civil UAS that takes place between the time that the system is activated with the purpose of flight and the time that the system is deactivated at the conclusion of its mission, in which any person suffers death or serious injury, or the aircraft has a maximum gross takeoff weight of 300 pounds or greater and sustains substantial damage. NTSB regulations contain specific definitions for “serious injury” and “substantial damage” (49 CFR part 830, § 830.2). For more information, visit https://www.ntsb.gov.

 

You are part of a news crew, operating an sUAS to cover a breaking story. You experience a flyaway during lading. The unmanned aircraft strikes a vehicle, causing approximately $800 worth of damage. When must you report the accident to the FAA?

  1. Anytime
  2. Within 10 days
  3. Not to exceed 30 days

While operating a small unmanned aircraft system (sUAS), you experience a flyaway and several people suffer injuries. Which of the following injuries requires reporting to the FAA?

  1. Scrapes and cuts bandaged on site
  2. An injury requiring hospitalization
  3. Minor bruises

 

Within how many calendar days must an sUAS accident be reported to the FAA?

  1. 10 days
  2. 90 days
  3. 30 days

UA.I.A.K5 - Inspection, testing, and demonstration of compliance

14 CFR §107.7   Inspection, testing, and demonstration of compliance.

(a) A remote pilot in command, owner, or person manipulating the flight controls of a small unmanned aircraft system must—

(1) Have in that person's physical possession and readily accessible the remote pilot certificate with a small UAS rating and identification when exercising the privileges of that remote pilot certificate.

(2) Present his or her remote pilot certificate with a small UAS rating and identification that contains the information listed at §107.67(b)(1) through (3) for inspection upon a request from—

(i) The Administrator;

(ii) An authorized representative of the National Transportation Safety Board;

(iii) Any Federal, State, or local law enforcement officer; or

(iv) An authorized representative of the Transportation Security Administration.

(3) Make available, upon request, to the Administrator any document, record, or report required to be kept under the regulations of this chapter.

(b) The remote pilot in command, visual observer, owner, operator, or person manipulating the flight controls of a small unmanned aircraft system must, upon request, allow the Administrator to make any test or inspection of the small unmanned aircraft system, the remote pilot in command, the person manipulating the flight controls of a small unmanned aircraft system, and, if applicable, the visual observer to determine compliance with this part.

(c) Any person holding an FAA-accepted declaration of compliance under subpart D of this part must, upon request, make available to the Administrator:

(1) The declaration of compliance required under subpart D of this part; and

(2) Any other document, record, or report required to be kept under the regulations of this chapter.

(d) Any person holding an FAA-accepted declaration of compliance under subpart D of this part must, upon request, allow the Administrator to inspect its facilities, technical data, and any manufactured small UAS and witness any tests necessary to determine compliance with that subpart.

 

AC 107-2A

5.5 Small Unmanned Aircraft Maintenance, Inspections, and Condition for Safe Operation. A small unmanned aircraft must be maintained in a condition for safe operation. Prior to flight, the remote PIC is responsible for conducting a check of the small unmanned aircraft to verify it is actually in a condition for safe operation

(§ 107.15). Guidance regarding how to determine that a small unmanned aircraft is in a condition for safe operation is found in Chapter 7, Small Unmanned Aircraft Maintenance and Inspection.

 

7.1 Applicability. Section 107.15 requires the remote PIC to perform checks of the small unmanned aircraft prior to each flight to determine whether the small UAS is in a condition for safe operation. This chapter provides guidance on how to inspect and maintain a small UAS. Additionally, Appendix C, Small UAS Maintenance and Inspection Best Practices, contains expanded information and best practices for small UAS maintenance and inspection.

7.2 Maintenance. Small UAS maintenance includes scheduled and unscheduled overhaul, repair, inspection, modification, replacement, and system software upgrades of the small UAS and its components necessary for flight. Whenever possible, the operator should maintain the small UAS and its components in accordance with manufacturer’s instructions. The aircraft manufacturer may provide the maintenance program, or, if one is not provided, the applicant may choose to develop one. See paragraph 7.3.5 for suggested benefits of recordkeeping. (See paragraph 8.3.7.4 for Category 4 maintenance requirements. See paragraph 8.3.7.4.1 for Category 4 record retention requirements and owner and operator responsibilities.)

7.2.1 Scheduled Maintenance. The small UAS manufacturer may provide documentation for scheduled maintenance of the entire small unmanned aircraft and associated system equipment. The manufacturer may identify components of the small UAS that should undergo scheduled periodic maintenance or replacement based on time-in-service limits (such as flight hours, cycles, and/or the calendar-days). Operators should adhere to the manufacturer’s recommended schedule for such maintenance, in the interest of achieving the longest and safest service life of the small UAS.

7.2.1.1 If the small UAS manufacturer or component manufacturer does not provide scheduled maintenance instructions, the operator should establish a scheduled maintenance protocol. Such protocol could entail documenting any repair, modification, overhaul, or replacement of a system component resulting from normal flight operations, and recording the time-in-service for that component at the time of the maintenance procedure. Over time, the operator should then be able to establish a reliable maintenance schedule for the small UAS and its components.

7.2.2. Unscheduled Maintenance. During the course of a preflight inspection, the remote PIC may discover a small UAS component is in need of servicing (such as lubrication), repair, modification, overhaul, or replacement outside of the scheduled maintenance period as a result of normal flight operations or resulting from a mishap. In addition, the small UAS manufacturer or component manufacturer may require an unscheduled system software update to correct a problem. In the event such a condition is found, flight operations should not occur until the issue is corrected.

7.2.3 Performing Maintenance. In some instances, the small UAS or component manufacturer may require completion of certain maintenance tasks by the manufacturer or by a person or facility (personnel) the manufacturer specifies. Maintenance should occur in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. However, if the operator declines to use the manufacturer or personnel the manufacturer recommends are unable to perform the required maintenance, the operator should consider the expertise of maintenance personnel familiar with the specific small UAS and its components.

7.2.3.1 If the operator or other maintenance personnel are unable to repair, modify, or overhaul a small UAS or component back to its safe operational specification, the operator should replace the small UAS or component with one that is in a condition for safe operation. All required maintenance should be completed before each flight, and preferably in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions or, in lieu of that, within known industry best practices.

7.3 Preflight Inspection. Pursuant to the requirements of § 107.49, in addition to assessing the intended area of operation and planning the operation as described above in paragraph 5.10, the remote PIC must inspect the small UAS to ensure that it is in a condition for safe operation prior to each flight. This inspection includes examining the small UAS for equipment damage or malfunction(s). This preflight inspection should be conducted in accordance with the small UAS manufacturer’s inspection procedures when available (usually found in the manufacturer’s owner or maintenance manual) and/or an inspection procedure developed by the small UAS owner or operator.

7.3.1 Creating an Inspection Program. As an option, small UAS owners or operators may wish to create an inspection program for their small UAS. The person creating such an inspection program may find sufficient details to assist in the development of a suitable inspection program tailored to a specific small UAS in a variety of industry programs.

7.3.2 Scalable Preflight Inspection. The preflight check as part of the inspection program should include an appropriate small UAS preflight inspection that is scalable to the small UAS, program, and operation that the remote PIC performs prior to each flight. An appropriate preflight inspection should encompass the entire system in order to determine a continued condition for safe operation prior to flight.

7.3.3 Title 14 CFR Part 43 Appendix D Guidelines. Another option and best practice may include opting to comply with the portions of part 43 appendix D. Although part 43 appendix D is technically a maintenance inspection checklist and not a preflight inspection checklist, it provides a logical and systematic approach to performing an inspection by dividing the aircraft into subgroups. It details inspection of the airframe, then the flight controls, then the batteries, then the engine, etc. Unlike manned aircraft that require significant disassembly, most small UAS inspection items are visible without necessitating the need for disassembly. In the absence of a manufacturer’s instructions, an operator may use part 43 appendix D as a guide to develop their own inspection program, but it is not comprehensive, as it does not address unique UAS features like datalinks or support equipment. An operator would need to identify those items not covered and include them in their inspection program.

7.3.4 Preflight Inspection Items. Even if the small UAS manufacturer has a written preflight inspection procedure, the FAA recommends the remote PIC ensure the following inspection items be incorporated into the remote PIC’s preflight inspection procedure. Such a practice will ensure the remote PIC accurately determines that the small UAS is in a condition for safe operation. The preflight inspection should include a visual or functional check of the following items.

1. Visual condition inspection of the small UAS components;

2. Airframe structure (including undercarriage), all flight control surfaces, and linkages;

3. Registration markings, for proper display and legibility (part 48, § 48.205);

4. Moveable control surface(s), including airframe attachment point(s);

5. Servo motor(s), including attachment point(s);

6. Propulsion system, including powerplant(s), propeller(s), rotor(s), ducted fan(s), etc.;

7. Check fuel for correct type and quantity;

8. Check that any equipment, such as a camera, is securely attached;

9. Check that control link connectivity is established between the aircraft and the CS;

10. Verify communication with small unmanned aircraft and that the small UAS has acquired GPS location from the minimum number of satellites specified by the manufacturer;

11. Verify all systems (e.g., aircraft and control unit) have an adequate power supply for the intended operation and are functioning properly;

12. Verify correct indications from avionics, including control link transceiver, communication/navigation equipment, and antenna(s);

13. Display panel, if used, is functioning properly;

14. Check ground support equipment, including takeoff and landing systems, for proper operation;

15. Verify adequate communication between CS and small unmanned aircraft exists; check to ensure the small UAS has acquired GPS location from the minimum number of satellites specified by the manufacturer;

16. Check for correct movement of control surfaces using the CS;

17. Check flight termination system, if applicable;

18. Check that the anti-collision light is functioning (if operating during civil twilight and night);

19. Calibrate small UAS compass prior to any flight;

20. Verify controller operation for heading and altitude;

21. Start the small UAS propellers to inspect for any imbalance or irregular operation;

22. At a controlled low altitude, fly within range of any interference and recheck all controls and stability; and

23. Check battery levels for the aircraft and CS.

 

7.3.5 Benefits of Recordkeeping. Small UAS owners and operators may find recordkeeping to be beneficial. This may be done by documenting any repair, modification, overhaul, or replacement of a system component resulting from normal flight operations, and recording the time-in-service for that component at the time of the maintenance procedure. The operator would then be able to establish a reliable maintenance schedule for the small UAS and its components. The use of hardcopy and/or electronic logbook format for recordkeeping, inclusive of all periodic inspections, maintenance, preventative maintenance, repairs, and alterations performed on the small UAS, is useful in documenting the history of the small UAS. Recordkeeping would include all components of the small UAS, including: small unmanned aircraft, CS, launch and recovery equipment, Command and Control (C2) link equipment, payload, and any other components required to safely operate the small UAS. Recordkeeping of documented maintenance and inspection events reinforces owner/operator responsibility through a systematic means to determine that the small UAS is in a condition for safe flight. Maintenance and inspection recordkeeping provides retrievable evidence of vital safety assessment data defining the condition of safety-critical systems and components supporting the decision to launch. For operators that rapidly accumulate flight operational hours/cycles, recordkeeping of a small UAS may provide an essential safety support. Methodical maintenance and inspection data collection can prove to be very helpful in the tracking of small UAS component service life, as well as systemic component, equipage, and structural failure events.

 

Under what condition should the Remote Pilot in Command of a small unmanned aircraft develop his or her own scheduled maintenance protocol?

  1. When the FAA requires you to, following an accident
  2. Small unmanned aircraft systems do not require maintenance
  3. When the manufacturer does not provide a maintenance schedule

 

Scheduled maintenance should be performed in accordance with the:

  1. Manufacturer’s recommendations
  2. Contractor requirements
  3. Stipulations in 14 CFR part 43

 

During your preflight inspection, you discover a small nick in the casing of your sUAS battery. What action should you take?

  1. Throw it away with your household trash
  2. Use it as long as it will still hold a charge
  3. Follow the manufacturer’s guidance

 

Which of the following sources of information should you consult first when determining what maintenance should be performed on an sUAS or its components?

  1. Local pilot best practices
  2. 14 CFR part 107
  3. Manufacturer guidance

UA.I.A.K6 - Multiple category sUAS

UA.I.A.K7 - Record retention

UA.I.A.K8 - Previously manufactured sUAS

UA.I.B.K1 - Registration requirements for sUAS

14 CFR §107.13   Registration.

A person operating a civil small unmanned aircraft system for purposes of flight must comply with the provisions of §91.203(a)(2) of this chapter.

 

AC 107-2A

5.4 Aircraft Registration. A small unmanned aircraft must be registered, in accordance with part 47 or part 48, prior to operating under part 107. Part 48 is the regulation that establishes the streamlined online registration option for small unmanned aircraft that will be operated only within the territorial limits of the United States. The online registration website. Guidance regarding small unmanned aircraft registration and marking. Alternatively, small unmanned aircraft owners or operators can elect to register under part 47 in the same manner as manned aircraft.

5.4.1 Registration and Permit for Foreign-Owned and Operated Small UAS. If small UAS operations involve the use of foreign civil aircraft, the operator would need to obtain a Foreign Aircraft Permit pursuant to 14 CFR part 375, as described in § 375.41, before conducting any commercial air operations under this authority. Foreign civil aircraft means (a) an aircraft of foreign registry that is not part of the armed forces of a foreign nation, or (b) a U.S.-registered aircraft owned, controlled, or operated by persons who are not citizens or permanent residents of the United States. Application instructions are specified in § 375.43. Applications should be submitted by electronic mail to the Department of Transportation (DOT) Office of International Aviation, Foreign

Air Carrier Licensing Division. Foreign-owned and operated small UAS must be registered, as provided for under part 47 or part 48, including submission of an Affidavit of Ownership for Unmanned Aircraft, if necessary. Additional information - Refer to Title 49 of the United States Code (49 U.S.C.) § 44101(b)(1) for exceptions.

 

14 CFR §48.1   Applicability.

(a) This part provides registration and identification requirements for small unmanned aircraft that are part of a small unmanned aircraft system as defined in §1.1 of this chapter.

(b) Small unmanned aircraft eligible for registration in the United States must be registered and identified in accordance with either:

(1) The registration and identification requirements in this part; or

(2) The registration requirements in part 47 and the identification and registration marking requirements in subparts A and C of part 45.

(c) Small unmanned aircraft intended to be operated outside of the territorial airspace of the United States, or registered through a trust or voting trust, must be registered in accordance with subparts A and B of part 47 and satisfy the identification and registration marking requirements of subparts A and C of part 45.

 

14 CFR §48.10   Definitions.

For purposes of this part, the following definitions apply:

Citizen of the United States or U.S. citizen means one of the following:

(1) An individual who is a citizen of the United States or one of its possessions.

(2) A partnership each of whose partners is an individual who is a citizen of the United States.

(3) A corporation or association organized under the laws of the United States or a State, the District of Columbia, or a territory or possession of the United States, of which the president and at least two-thirds of the board of directors and other managing officers are citizens of the United States, which is under the actual control of citizens of the United States, and in which at least 75 percent of the voting interest is owned or controlled by persons that are citizens of the United States.

Registry means the FAA, Civil Aviation Registry, Aircraft Registration Branch.

Resident alien means an individual citizen of a foreign country lawfully admitted for permanent residence in the United States as an immigrant in conformity with the regulations of the Department of Homeland Security (8 CFR Chapter 1).

 

14 CFR §48.15   Requirement to register.

No person may operate a small unmanned aircraft that is eligible for registration under 49 U.S.C. 44101-44103 unless one of the following criteria has been satisfied:

(a) The owner has registered and marked the aircraft in accordance with this part;

(b) The aircraft is operated exclusively in compliance with 49 U.S.C. 44809 and weighs 0.55 pounds or less on takeoff, including everything that is on board or otherwise attached to the aircraft; or

(c) The aircraft is an aircraft of the Armed Forces of the United States.

 

14 CFR §48.20   Eligibility for registration.

A small unmanned aircraft may be registered under 49 U.S.C. 44103 and under this part only when the aircraft is not registered under the laws of a foreign country and is—

(a) Owned by a U.S. citizen;

(b) Owned by an individual citizen of a foreign country lawfully admitted for permanent residence in the United States;

(c) Owned by a corporation not a citizen of the United States when the corporation is organized and doing business under the laws of the United States or a State within the United States, and the aircraft is based and primarily used in the United States; or

(d) An aircraft of—

(1) The United States Government; or

(2) A State, the District of Columbia, a territory or possession of the United States, or a political subdivision of a State, territory, or possession.

 

14 CFR §48.25   Applicants.

(a) To register a small unmanned aircraft in the United States under this part, a person must provide the information required by §48.110 to the Registry in a form and manner prescribed by the Administrator. Upon submission of this information, the FAA issues a Certificate of Aircraft Registration to that person.

(b) A small unmanned aircraft must be registered by its owner using the legal name of its owner, unless the owner is less than 13 years of age. If the owner is less than 13 years of age, then the small unmanned aircraft must be registered by a person who is at least 13 years of age.

(c) In accordance with 49 U.S.C. 44103(c), registration is not evidence of aircraft ownership in any proceeding in which ownership of an unmanned aircraft by a particular person is in issue.

(d) In this part, “owner” includes a buyer in possession, a bailee, a lessee of a small unmanned aircraft under a contract of conditional sale, and the assignee of that person.

 

14 CFR §48.30   Fees.

(a) The fee for issuing or renewing a Certificate of Aircraft Registration as described in §48.100 is $5.00 per aircraft.

(b) The fee for issuing or renewing a Certificate of Aircraft Registration as described in §48.105 is $5.00 per certificate.

(c) Each application for and renewal of a Certificate of Aircraft Registration must be accompanied by the fee described in paragraphs (a) and (b), as applicable, paid to the Federal Aviation Administration through the web-based aircraft registration system, or in another manner if prescribed by the Administrator.

 

14 CFR §48.100   Registration: Small unmanned aircraft operated for any purpose other than exclusively limited recreational operations.

(a) Certificate of Aircraft Registration. A Certificate of Aircraft Registration issued in accordance with §48.110 to a small unmanned aircraft used for any purpose other than operating exclusively in compliance with 49 U.S.C. 44809 constitutes registration for the small unmanned aircraft identified on the application.

(b) Effective date of registration. An aircraft is registered when the applicant receives a Certificate of Aircraft Registration for the specific aircraft. The effective date of registration is shown by the date of issue on the Certificate of Aircraft Registration issued for the aircraft.

(c) Registration renewal. A Certificate of Aircraft registration issued under this part expires 3 years after the date of issue unless it is renewed.

(1) The holder of a Certificate of Aircraft Registration must renew the Certificate by verifying, in a form and manner prescribed by the Administrator, that the information provided in accordance with §48.110 is accurate and if it is not, provide updated information. The verification may take place at any time within the six months preceding the month in which the Certificate of Aircraft registration expires.

(2) A certificate issued under this paragraph expires three years from the expiration date of the previous certificate.

(d) Other events affecting effectiveness of Certificate. Each Certificate of Aircraft Registration issued by the FAA under this subpart is effective, unless registration has ended by reason of having been revoked, canceled, expired, or the ownership is transferred, until the date upon which one of the following events occurs:

(1) Subject to the Convention on the International Recognition of Rights in Aircraft when applicable, the aircraft is registered under the laws of a foreign country.

(2) The small unmanned aircraft is totally destroyed or scrapped.

(3) The holder of the Certificate of Aircraft Registration loses U.S. citizenship.

(4) Thirty days have elapsed since the death of the holder of the Certificate of Aircraft Registration.

(5) The owner, if an individual who is not a citizen of the United States, loses status as a resident alien, unless that person becomes a citizen of the United States at the same time.

(6) The owner is a corporation other than a corporation which is a citizen of the United States and one of the following events occurs:

(i) The corporation ceases to be lawfully organized and doing business under the laws of the United States or any State thereof; or

(ii) The aircraft was not operated exclusively within the United States during the period of registration under this part.

 

14 CFR §48.105   Registration: Small unmanned aircraft intended exclusively for limited recreational operations.

(a) Certificate of Aircraft Registration. A Certificate of Aircraft Registration issued in accordance with §48.110 for small unmanned aircraft to be operated exclusively in compliance with 49 U.S.C. 44809 constitutes registration for all the small unmanned aircraft used exclusively for operations in compliance with 49 U.S.C. 44809 owned by the individual identified on the application.

(b) Effective date of registration. An aircraft is registered when the applicant receives a Certificate of Aircraft Registration. The effective date of registration is shown by the date of issue on the Certificate of Aircraft Registration issued under this part.

(c) Registration renewal. A Certificate of Aircraft registration issued under this part expires 3 years after the date of issue unless it is renewed.

(1) The holder of a Certificate of Aircraft Registration must renew the Certificate by verifying, in a form and manner prescribed by the Administrator, that the information provided in accordance with §48.110 is accurate and if it is not, provide updated information. The verification may take place at any time within the six months preceding the month in which the Certificate of Aircraft registration expires.

(2) A certificate issued under this paragraph expires three years from the expiration date of the previous certificate.

(d) Other events affecting effectiveness of Certificate. Each Certificate of Aircraft Registration issued by the FAA under this part is effective, unless registration has ended by reason of having been revoked, canceled or expired, or until the date upon which one of the following events occurs:

(1) The holder of the Certificate of Aircraft Registration loses U.S. citizenship.

(2) Thirty days have elapsed since the death of the holder of the Certificate of Aircraft Registration.

(3) The owner, if an individual who is not a citizen of the United States, loses status as a resident alien, unless that person becomes a citizen of the United States at the same time.

 

14 CFR §48.110   Application.

(a) Required information. Each applicant for a Certificate of Aircraft Registration issued under this part must submit all of the following information to the Registry:

(1) Applicant's name and, for an applicant other than an individual, the name of the authorized representative applying for a Certificate of Aircraft Registration.

(2) Applicant's physical address and, for an applicant other than an individual, the physical address of the authorized representative. If the applicant or authorized representative cannot receive mail at a physical address, then provide a mailing address.

(3) Applicant's email address or, for applicants other than individuals, the email address of the authorized representative.

(4) Applicant's telephone number(s) and, for an applicant other than an individual, the telephone number(s) of the authorized representative.

(5) The aircraft manufacturer and model name.

(6) For any standard remote identification unmanned aircraft, the serial number issued by the manufacturer of the unmanned aircraft in accordance with the design and production requirements of part 89 of this chapter. The serial number provided in this application must not be listed on more than one Certificate of Aircraft Registration at the same time.

(7) For any unmanned aircraft equipped with a remote identification broadcast module, the serial number issued by the manufacturer of the remote identification broadcast module in accordance with the design and production requirements of part 89 of this chapter. An applicant may submit the serial number of more than one remote identification broadcast module as part of the application for aircraft registration under §48.105. The serial number of a remote identification broadcast module provided in this application must not be listed on more than one Certificate of Aircraft Registration at the same time.

(8) Other information as required by the Administrator.

(b) Provision of information. The information identified in paragraph (a) of this section must be submitted to the Registry through the web-based small unmanned aircraft registration system in a form and manner prescribed by the Administrator.

(c) Issuance of Certificate of Aircraft Registration. The FAA will issue a Certificate of Aircraft Registration upon completion of the application requirements provided in paragraph (a) of this section.

 

14 CFR §48.115   Requirement to maintain current information.

(a) The holder of a Certificate of Aircraft Registration must ensure that the information provided under §48.110 remains accurate.

(b) The holder of a Certificate of Aircraft Registration must update the information using the web-based small unmanned aircraft registration system within 14 calendar days of the following:

(1) A change in the information provided under §48.110.

(2) When aircraft registration requires cancellation for any reason including sale or transfer, destruction, or export.

 

14 CFR §48.120   Invalid registration.

The registration of a small unmanned aircraft is invalid if, at the time it is made—

(a) The aircraft is registered in a foreign country;

(b) The applicant is not the owner, except when the applicant registers on behalf of an owner who is under 13 years of age;

(c) The applicant is not eligible to submit an application under this part; or

(d) The interest of the applicant in the aircraft was created by a transaction that was not entered into in good faith, but rather was made to avoid (with or without the owner's knowledge) compliance with 49 U.S.C. 44101-44103.

14 CFR §48.125   Foreign civil aircraft.

Except for corporations eligible to register under §48.20(c), the FAA will issue a recognition of ownership to persons required to comply with the provisions of this part pursuant to an authorization to operate issued under part 375 of this title. The recognition of ownership does not have the effect of U.S. aircraft registration.

 

14 CFR §48.200   General.

 

(a) No person may operate a small unmanned aircraft registered in accordance with this part unless the aircraft displays a unique identifier in accordance with the requirements of §48.205 of this subpart.

(b) A unique identifier is one of the following:

(1) The registration number issued to an individual or the registration number issued to the aircraft by the Registry upon completion of the registration process provided by this part; or

(2) If authorized by the Administrator, the small unmanned aircraft serial number provided with the application for Certificate of Aircraft Registration under §48.110(a).

 

14 CFR §48.205   Display and location of unique identifier.

(a) The unique identifier must be maintained in a condition that is legible.

(b) The unique identifier must be affixed to the small unmanned aircraft by any means necessary to ensure that it will remain affixed for the duration of each operation.

(c) The unique identifier must be legibly displayed on an external surface of the small unmanned aircraft.

 

According to 14 CFR Part 48, when must a person register a small UA with the FAA?

  1. All civilian small Uas weighing greater than 0.55 pounds must be registered regardless of its intended use
  2. When the small UA is used for any purpose other than as a model aircraft
  3. Only when the operator will be paid for commercial services 

 

According to 14 CFR Part 48, when would a small UA owner not be permitted to register it?

  1. If the owner is less than 13 years of age
  2. All persons must register their small UA
  3. If the owner does not have a valid United States driver’s license

 

Under what condition would a small UA not have to be registered before it is operated in the United States?

  1. When the aircraft weighs less than 0.55 pound on takeoff, including everything that is on board or attached to the aircraft
  2. When the aircraft has a takeoff weight that is more than 0.55 pounds, but less than 55 pounds, not including fuel and necessary attachments
  3. All small UAS need to be registered regardless of the weight before, during, or after the flight

 

According to 14 CFR Part 48, when would a small unmanned aircraft owner not be permitted to register it?

  1. If the owner does not have a valid United States driver’s license
  2. All persons are eligible to register a small unmanned aircraft
  3. If the owner is less than 13 years of age

 

Which of the following statements is TRUE about small unmanned aircraft registration with the FAA before operation in the National Airspace System (NAS)?

  1. All small unmanned aircraft operating under part 107 must be registered
  2. Small unmanned aircraft do not require registration
  3. Only unmanned aircraft that weight 55 pounds or more must be registered

UA.I.B.K2 - Requirement for the sUAS to be in a condition for safe operation

14 CFR §107.15   Condition for safe operation.

(a) No person may operate a civil small unmanned aircraft system unless it is in a condition for safe operation. Prior to each flight, the remote pilot in command must check the small unmanned aircraft system to determine whether it is in a condition for safe operation.

(b) No person may continue flight of the small unmanned aircraft when he or she knows or has reason to know that the small unmanned aircraft system is no longer in a condition for safe operation.

 

How often is the Remote PIC required to inspect the sUAS to ensure that it is in a condition for safe operation?

  1. Annually
  2. Monthly
  3. Before each flight

 

According to 14 CFR Part 107, who is responsible for ensuring that all control links between the ground control station and the small unmanned aircraft are working properly?

  1. Manufacturer
  2. Owner or operator
  3. Remote Pilot in Command

Before each flight, the Remote Pilot in Command must ensure that:

  1. Objects carried on the sUAS are secure
  2. TSA has granted clearance
  3. The site supervisor has approved the flight

 

According to 14 CFR part 107, the responsibility to inspect the small unmanned aircraft system (sUAS) to ensure it is in a safe operating condition rests with the:

  1. Remote Pilot in Command
  2. Visual observer
  3. Owner of the sUAS

UA.I.B.K3 - Medical condition(s) that would interfere with safe operation of an sUAS

14 CFR §107.17   Medical condition.

No person may manipulate the flight controls of a small unmanned aircraft system or act as a remote pilot in command, visual observer, or direct participant in the operation of the small unmanned aircraft if he or she knows or has reason to know that he or she has a physical or mental condition that would interfere with the safe operation of the small unmanned aircraft system.

 

AC 107-2A

5.6 Medical Condition. Being able to operate the small unmanned aircraft safely relies on, among other things, the physical and mental capabilities of the remote PIC, person manipulating the controls, VO, and any other direct participant in the small UAS operation. Though the person manipulating the controls of a small unmanned aircraft and VO are not required to obtain an airman medical certificate, they cannot participate in the operation of a small UAS if they know or have reason to know that they have a physical or mental condition that could interfere with the safe operation of the small UAS

(§ 107.17).

5.6.1 Physical or Mental Incapacitations. Obvious examples of physical or mental incapacitations that could render a remote PIC, person manipulating the controls, or VO incapable of performing their small UAS operational duties include, but are not limited to, such things as:

1. The temporary or permanent loss of the dexterity necessary to operate the CS to control the small unmanned aircraft safely.

2. The inability to maintain the required “see and avoid” vigilance due to blurred vision.

3. The inability to maintain proper situational awareness of the small unmanned aircraft operations due to illness and/or medication(s), such as after taking medications that caution against driving or operating heavy machinery.

4. A debilitating physical condition, such as a migraine headache or moderate or severe body ache(s) or pain(s) that would render the remote PIC, person manipulating the controls, or VO unable to perform small UAS operational duties.

5. A hearing or speaking impairment that would inhibit the remote PIC, person manipulating the controls, or VO from effectively communicating with each other. In such a situation, the remote PIC must ensure he or she implements an alternative means of effective communication. For example, a person who is hearing impaired may be able to use sign language to communicate effectively.

UA.I.B.K4 - Responsibility and authority of the remote PIC

UA.I.B.K4a - Allowing a person other than the remote PIC to manipulate the flight controls

14 CFR §107.19   Remote pilot in command.

(a) A remote pilot in command must be designated before or during the flight of the small unmanned aircraft.

(b) The remote pilot in command is directly responsible for and is the final authority as to the operation of the small unmanned aircraft system.

(c) The remote pilot in command must ensure that the small unmanned aircraft will pose no undue hazard to other people, other aircraft, or other property in the event of a loss of control of the small unmanned aircraft for any reason.

(d) The remote pilot in command must ensure that the small UAS operation complies with all applicable regulations of this chapter.

(e) The remote pilot in command must have the ability to direct the small unmanned aircraft to ensure compliance with the applicable provisions of this chapter.

 

 

AC 107-2A

5.1 Applicability. This chapter provides guidance regarding small unmanned aircraft operating limitations and the responsibilities of the remote pilot in command (PIC), person manipulating the controls, visual observer (VO), and anyone else who may directly participate in the small UAS operation. A person is a direct participant in the small UAS operation if his or her involvement is necessary for the safe operation of the small UAS.

5.2 Aircraft Operation. Just like a manned-aircraft PIC, the remote PIC of a small unmanned aircraft is directly responsible for and is the final authority for the safe operation of the small unmanned aircraft (§ 107.19). Additionally, a person manipulating the controls (who is not the remote PIC) can participate in flight operations under certain conditions. It is important to note that a person may not operate or act as a remote PIC or VO in the operation of more than one small unmanned aircraft at the same time

(§ 107.35). The following items describe the requirements for both a remote PIC and a person manipulating the controls.

5.2.1 Remote PIC. A person acting as a remote PIC of a small UAS under part 107 must obtain a Remote Pilot Certificate with a small UAS rating issued by the FAA prior to small UAS operation (§ 107.12). The remote PIC must have, in that person’s physical possession and readily accessible, this certificate and personal identification during flight operations

(§§ 107.7 and 107.67(b)(1) through (3)). Guidance regarding remote pilot certification is found in Chapter 6, Part 107 Subpart C, Remote Pilot Certification.

5.2.1.1 Part 107 permits transfer of control of a small UAS between certificated remote pilots. Two or more certificated remote pilots transferring operational control (i.e., the remote PIC designation) to each other may do so only if they are both capable of maintaining Visual Line of Sight (VLOS) of the small unmanned aircraft without loss of control (LOC). One remote pilot may be designated the remote PIC at the beginning of the operation, and at some point in the operation another remote pilot may take over as remote PIC by positively communicating the transfer of control. The remote PIC assuming control of the small UAS maintains responsibility for the safe operation of the small UAS.

5.2.2 Person Manipulating the Flight Controls. A person who does not hold a Remote Pilot Certificate or a remote pilot who has not met the recurrent training requirements of
part 107 may operate the small UAS under part 107, as long as he or she is directly supervised by a remote PIC and the remote PIC has the ability to take immediate, direct control of the small UAS. This ability is necessary to ensure the remote PIC can quickly address any hazardous situation. The ability of the remote PIC to take over the flight controls immediately could be achieved by using a number of different methods. The operation could involve a “buddy box” type system that uses two control stations (CS): one for the person manipulating the flight controls and one for the remote PIC that allows the remote PIC to override the other CS and immediately take direct control of the small unmanned aircraft (§ 107.19). Another method could involve the remote PIC standing 
close enough to the person manipulating the flight controls so that he or she would be able to physically take over the CS from the other person. Another method could employ the use of an automation system where the remote PIC could immediately engage that system to put the small unmanned aircraft in a pre-programmed “safe” mode such as a hover, a holding pattern, or “return home.”

5.2.3 Automated Operations. An automated operation is generally considered an operation in which the remote pilot inputs a flight plan into the CS, which sends the flight plan to the autopilot on board the small unmanned aircraft. During automated flight, flight control inputs are made by components on board the aircraft, not from a CS. If the remote PIC loses the control link to the small unmanned aircraft, the aircraft would continue to fly the programmed mission/return home to land. During automated flight, the remote PIC must have the ability to change routing/altitude or command the aircraft to land immediately. The ability to direct the small unmanned aircraft may be through manual manipulation of the flight controls or through commands using automation.

5.2.3.1  The remote PIC must retain the ability to direct the small unmanned aircraft to ensure compliance with the requirements of part 107. The remote PIC may transmit a command for the automated aircraft to climb, descend, land now, proceed to a new waypoint, enter an orbit pattern, or return to home. Any of these methods may be used to avoid a hazard or give right-of-way.

5.2.3.2  The use of automation does not allow a person to operate more than one small unmanned aircraft simultaneously (§ 107.35).

 

Who is ultimately responsible for preventing a hazardous situation before an accident occurs? 

  1. Remote Pilot in Command (Remote PIC)
  2. Person manipulating the controls
  3. Visual observer

 

Which crewmember is required to be under the direct supervision of the Remote PIC when operating an sUAS?

  1. Remote Pilot in Command (Remote PIC)
  2. Person manipulating the controls
  3. Visual observer

 

 

Whose sole task during an sUAS operation is to watch the sUAS and report potential hazards to the rest of the crew?

  1. Remote Pilot in Command (Remote PIC)
  2. Person manipulating the controls
  3. Visual observer

 

Which crewmember must hold a remote pilot certificate with an sUAS rating?

  1. Remote Pilot in Command (Remote PIC)
  2. Person manipulating the controls
  3. Visual observer

 

A person without a part 107 remote pilot certificate may operate an sUAS for non-recreational operations:

  1. Alone, if operating during daylight hours
  2. Only when visual observers participate in the operation
  3. Under the direct supervision of a Remote Pilot in Command

 

Who is responsible for ensuring that there are enough crewmembers for a given sUAS operation?

  1. Remote Pilot in Command (Remote PIC)
  2. Person manipulating the controls
  3. Visual observer

UA.I.B.K5 - Regulatory deviation and reporting requirements for in-flight emergencies

14 CFR §107.21   In-flight emergency.

(a) In an in-flight emergency requiring immediate action, the remote pilot in command may deviate from any rule of this part to the extent necessary to meet that emergency.

(b) Each remote pilot in command who deviates from a rule under paragraph (a) of this section must, upon request of the Administrator, send a written report of that deviation to the Administrator.

 

AC 107-2A

5.18  In-Flight Emergency. An in-flight emergency is an unexpected and unforeseen serious occurrence or situation that requires urgent, prompt action. In the case of an in-flight emergency, the remote PIC is permitted to deviate from any rule of part 107 to the extent necessary to respond to that emergency. A remote PIC who exercises this emergency power is required, upon the FAA’s request, to send a written report to the FAA explaining the deviation. Emergency action should be taken in such a way as to minimize injury or damage to property (§ 107.21).

 

To avoid a possible collision with a manned airplane, you climb your unmanned aircraft to yield the right of way. In doing so, your unmanned aircraft reached an altitude greater than 600 feet AGL. To whom must you report the deviation, upon request?

  1. The FAA
  2. Air traffic control
  3. The NTSB

UA.I.B.K6 - Hazardous operations

UA.I.B.K6a - Careless or reckless

UA.I.B.K6b - Dropping an object

14 CFR §107.23   Hazardous operation.

No person may:

(a) Operate a small unmanned aircraft system in a careless or reckless manner so as to endanger the life or property of another; or

(b) Allow an object to be dropped from a small unmanned aircraft in a manner that creates an undue hazard to persons or property.

 

AC 107-2A

5.19  Careless or Reckless Operation. As with manned aircraft, remote PICs are prohibited from engaging in a careless or reckless operation (§ 107.23). Because small UAS have additional operating considerations that are not present in manned aircraft operations, additional activity may amount to careless or reckless operation if conducted using a small UAS. For example, careless or reckless operation may consist of failure to consider weather conditions near structures, trees, or rolling terrain when operating in a densely populated area.

 

Personnel at an outdoor concert venue use an sUAS to drop promotional t-shirts and CDs over the audience. Is this sUAS operation in compliance with 14 CFR Part 107?

  1. Compliant with part 107
  2. Not compliant with part 107

UA.I.B.K7 - Operating from a moving aircraft or moving land- or water-borne vehicle

14 CFR §107.25   Operation from a moving vehicle or aircraft.

No person may operate a small unmanned aircraft system—

(a) From a moving aircraft; or

(b) From a moving land or water-borne vehicle unless the small unmanned aircraft is flown over a sparsely populated area and is not transporting another person's property for compensation or hire.

 

AC 107-2A

5.14  Operations from Moving Vehicles. Part 107 permits operation of a small unmanned aircraft from a moving land or water-borne vehicle over a sparsely-populated area. However, operation from a moving aircraft is prohibited. Additionally, small unmanned aircraft transporting another person’s property for compensation or hire may not be operated from any moving vehicle (§ 107.25).

5.14.1  Waiving the Sparsely-Populated Area Provision. Although the regulation states that operations from a moving vehicle may only be conducted over a sparsely-populated area, this provision may be waived (§§ 107.200 and 107.205). The operation is subject to the same restrictions that apply to all other part 107 operations. The remote PIC operating from a moving vehicle is still required to maintain VLOS. The remote PIC is also responsible for ensuring that no person is subject to undue risk as a result of LOC of the small unmanned aircraft for any reason. If a VO is not located in the same vehicle as the remote PIC, the VO and remote PIC must still maintain effective communication.

5.14.2  Applicable Laws. Other laws, such as State and local traffic laws, may apply to a person driving a vehicle and operating an unmanned aircraft from the vehicle. When operating a small UAS from a moving vehicle, the FAA emphasizes that people involved in the operation are responsible for complying with applicable State and local laws as well as FAA regulations.

 

In accordance with 14 CFR Part 107, you may operate an sUAS from a moving vehicle when no property is carries for compensation or hire:

  1. Over a sparsely populated area
  2. Over a parade or other social events
  3. Over suburban areas

 

A professional wildlife photographer operates an sUAS from a moving truck to capture aerial images of migrating birds in remote wetlands. The driver of the truck does not serve any crewmember role in the operation. Is this sUAS operation in compliance with 14 CFR part 107?

  1. Compliant with part 107
  2. Not compliant with part 107

UA.I.B.K8 - Alcohol or drugs and the provisions on prohibition of use

14 CFR §107.27   Alcohol or drugs.

A person manipulating the flight controls of a small unmanned aircraft system or acting as a remote pilot in command or visual observer must comply with the provisions of §§91.17 and 91.19 of this chapter.

 

AC 107-2A

5.16 Operations While Impaired. Part 107 does not allow operation of a small UAS if the remote PIC, person manipulating the controls, or VO is unable to carry out his or her responsibilities safely (§ 107.27). It is the remote PIC’s responsibility to ensure all crewmembers are not impaired while participating in the operation. While drug and alcohol use are known to impair judgment, certain over-the-counter medications and medical conditions could also affect the ability to operate a small unmanned aircraft safely. For example, certain antihistamines and decongestants may cause drowsiness. Additionally, part 107 prohibits a person from serving as a remote PIC, VO, or other crewmember, or manipulating the controls, if he or she:

- Consumed any alcoholic beverage within the preceding 8 hours;

- Is under the influence of alcohol;

- Has a blood alcohol concentration of .04 percent or greater; or

- Is using a drug that affects the person’s mental or physical capabilities (§ 91.17).

5.16.1 Medical Conditions. Certain medical conditions, such as epilepsy, may also create a risk to operations. It is the responsibility of remote PICs to determine that their medical condition is under control and they can safely conduct a small UAS operation.

 

Remote pilot sUAS study guide

Introduction

14 CFR part 107 does not allow operation of small UA if the remote PIC, the person manipulating the controls, or Visual Observer (VO) is unable to safely carry out his or her responsibilities. It is the remote PIC’s responsibility to ensure all crewmembers are not participating in the operation while impaired. While drug and alcohol use are known to impair judgment, certain over-the-counter (OTC) medications and medical conditions could also affect the ability to safely operate a small UA. For example, certain antihistamines and decongestants may cause drowsiness. We also emphasize that part 107 prohibits a person from serving as a remote PIC, person manipulating the controls, VO, or other crewmember if he or she:

- Has consumed any alcoholic beverage within the preceding 8 hours

- Is under the influence of alcohol

- Has a blood alcohol concentration of .04 percent or greater

- Is using a drug that affects the person’s mental or physical capabilities

 

There are certain medical conditions, such as epilepsy, may also create a risk to operations. It is the remote PIC’s responsibility to determine that their medical condition is under control and they can safely conduct a small UA operation. 

Don't Drink and Drone

UA.I.B.K9 - Daylight operation

14 CFR §107.29   Operation at night.

(a) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section, no person may operate a small unmanned aircraft system at night unless—

(1) The remote pilot in command of the small unmanned aircraft has completed an initial knowledge test or training, as applicable, under §107.65 after April 6, 2021; and

(2) The small unmanned aircraft has lighted anti-collision lighting visible for at least 3 statute miles that has a flash rate sufficient to avoid a collision. The remote pilot in command may reduce the intensity of, but may not extinguish, the anti-collision lighting if he or she determines that, because of operating conditions, it would be in the interest of safety to do so.

(b) No person may operate a small unmanned aircraft system during periods of civil twilight unless the small unmanned aircraft has lighted anti-collision lighting visible for at least 3 statute miles that has a flash rate sufficient to avoid a collision. The remote pilot in command may reduce the intensity of, but may not extinguish, the anti-collision lighting if he or she determines that, because of operating conditions, it would be in the interest of safety to do so.

(c) For purposes of paragraph (b) of this section, civil twilight refers to the following:

(1) Except for Alaska, a period of time that begins 30 minutes before official sunrise and ends at official sunrise;

(2) Except for Alaska, a period of time that begins at official sunset and ends 30 minutes after official sunset; and

(3) In Alaska, the period of civil twilight as defined in the Air Almanac.

       (d) After May 17, 2021, no person may operate a small unmanned aircraft system at night in accordance with a certificate of waiver issued prior to April 21, 2021 under §107.200. The certificates of waiver issued prior to April 21, 2021 under §107.200 that authorize deviation from §107.29 terminate on May 17, 2021.

 

 

AC 107-2A

5.7 Civil Twilight and Operations at Night. Night is defined in § 1.1 as the time between the end of evening civil twilight and the beginning of morning civil twilight, as published in The Air Almanac, converted to local time. In the continental United States, evening civil twilight is the period of sunset until 30 minutes after sunset and morning civil twilight is the period of 30 minutes prior to sunrise until sunrise. In Alaska, the definition of civil twilight differs and is described in The Air Almanac. The Air Almanac provides tables to determine sunrise and sunset at various latitudes. These tables can also be downloaded from the Naval Observatory and customized for a particular location. 

5.7.1  Civil Twilight Operations. When small UAS operations occur during civil twilight, the small unmanned aircraft must be equipped with anti-collision lighting visible for at least 3 statute miles (sm). However, the remote PIC may reduce the visible distance of the lighting to less than 3 sm during flight if he or she has determined that it would be in the interest of safety to do so. For more information on this determination, see paragraph 5.7.2.2.

5.7.2  Operations at Night. Small UAS operations at night may occur only under the two risk mitigation measures listed in § 107.29. First, the remote PIC must have completed either an initial knowledge test or recurrent training that have been updated to include night operations. Second, the small unmanned aircraft must have lighted anti-collision lighting that is visible for at least 3 sm. The remote pilot may rely upon manufacturer statements indicating the anti-collision lighting is visible for 3 sm. However, the remote pilot ultimately remains responsible for verifying that anti-collision lighting is operational, visible for 3 sm, and has a flash rate sufficient to avoid a collision at the operating location.

5.7.2.1 A certificated remote pilot receives night operations privileges and may operate at night only after completing either a knowledge test that contains questions on night physiology and night visual illusions, or through completion of recurrent training. The recurrent training contains the topics of night physiology and night visual illusions. Chapter 6 provides a detailed explanation of both paths for night operations privileges.

5.7.2.2 As is the case for civil twilight operations, the small unmanned aircraft must be equipped with anti-collision lighting that is visible for at least 3 sm. However, the remote PIC may reduce the intensity of the light if the remote PIC determines it is in the interest of safety to do so. For example, a bright light or a bright strobe light on the small unmanned aircraft in very close proximity to the remote pilot could cause the remote pilot to lose the ability to observe the small unmanned aircraft’s location, speed, attitude, or altitude with accuracy. The remote pilot maintains the discretion to reduce the intensity of the anti-collision lighting when he or she determines it would be in the best interest of safety to do so. Discretion is an important component of § 107.19, which states that the remote PIC is directly responsible for the operation of the small unmanned aircraft. The remote PIC must ensure the operation of the small unmanned aircraft complies with all regulations of

part 107. This includes the requirement to maintain the capability of visually observing the small unmanned aircraft. Section 107.29 does not require small unmanned aircraft operating during the day to have illuminated small unmanned aircraft anti-collision lighting. Lighting is generally not effective for mitigating risk of collision during daytime operations. Remote pilots may exercise their discretion, however, and elect to have lighting on during all daytime operations.

5.7.2.3 A remote PIC or operator may request a waiver of the anti-collision lighting requirement for operations at night and during civil twilight. The process for requesting a waiver is two-fold: the requester must (1) fully describe the proposed operation, and (2) establish the operation can be safely conducted under the terms of a Certificate of Waiver (CoW). Paragraph 5.20 below describes the application process for waivers.

 

A remote PIC is operating an sUAS at night to survey a structure using aerial thermal imagery. The sUAS is equipped with high-visibility position and anti-collision lighting. Though the lighting would be visible for 3 statute miles, the Remote PIC has also greatly reduced the operational area of the sUAS for night maneuvers. Is this sUAS operation in compliance with 14 CFR Part 107?

  1. Compliant with part 107
  2. Not compliant with part 107

 

A Remote PIC is operating an sUAS at night. A nearby homeowner complains about the ultra-bright LED strobe anti-collision lights. The Remote PIC reduces the intensity of the lights to avoid a confrontation. Is this sUAS operation in compliance with 14 CFR Part 107?

  1. Compliant with part 107
  2. Not compliant with part 107

 

During night operations, compensate for the night blind spot by: 

  1. Using bright ground lighting around the Remote PIC
  2. Looking 5 to 10 degrees off-center of the sUAS
  3. Focusing only on the control station display

 

A company hires a UAS operator to film construction progress on a new headquarters building. The Remote PIC wants to capture sunrise footage and begins aerial photography about 15 min before sunrise. Most of the operation will be conducted after sunrise, though, so the sUAS is not equipped with anti-collision or position lighting. Is this sUAS operation in compliance with 14 CFR Part 107?

  1. Compliant with part 107
  2. Not compliant with part 107

 

According to 14 CFR Part 107, what is required to operate a small unmanned aircraft in civil twilight or at night?

  1. Use of lighted anti-collision lights
  2. Selection of a rural area for conducting the operation
  3. Use of a transponder

 

When may a remote pilot reduce the intensity of an aircraft’s light during a night flight?

  1. At no time may the lights of an sUAS be reduced in intensity at night
  2. When a manned aircraft is in the vicinity of the sUAS
  3. When it is in the interest of safety to dim the aircraft’s lights

 

When conducting operations during civil twilight or at night, the small unmanned aircraft must be equipped with anti-collision lights that are capable of being visible for at least:

  1. 5 statute miles (sm) from the control station
  2. 1 statute mile (sm) from the control station
  3. 3 statute miles (sm) from the control station

 

When does a Remote Pilot in Command operating at night have the discretion to reduce the intensity of the anti-collision lighting?

  1. In the interest of operational safety
  2. Never
  3. Only at the start of a night operation 

 

To keep the small unmanned aircraft in the intended area and within visual line of sight (VLOS) during night operations, the Remote Pilot in Command:

  1. May rely solely on anti-collision lights
  2. Should reduce operational ranges
  3. Is required to designate two visual observers

 

As landing an sUAS at night is particularly challenging, select a landing area:

  1. Over water, sand, or other soft surface
  2. That is as far from crewmembers as possible
  3. With sufficient lighting to allow a safe landing

 

According to 14 CFR Part 107, what is required to operate a small UA within 30 minutes after official sunset?

  1. Use of anti-collision lights
  2. Must be operated in a rural area
  3. Use of a transponder

 

If the Remote PIC cannot determine the location of the sUAS in relation to other aircraft during night operations, when should he or she land the sUAS?

  1. Immediately
  2. At the end of the planned operation
  3. Within 10 minutes

UA.I.B.K10 - Visual line of sight (VLOS) aircraft operations

14 CFR §107.31   Visual line of sight aircraft operation.

(a) With vision that is unaided by any device other than corrective lenses, the remote pilot in command, the visual observer (if one is used), and the person manipulating the flight control of the small unmanned aircraft system must be able to see the unmanned aircraft throughout the entire flight in order to:

(1) Know the unmanned aircraft's location;

(2) Determine the unmanned aircraft's attitude, altitude, and direction of flight;

(3) Observe the airspace for other air traffic or hazards; and

(4) Determine that the unmanned aircraft does not endanger the life or property of another.

(b) Throughout the entire flight of the small unmanned aircraft, the ability described in paragraph (a) of this section must be exercised by either:

(1) The remote pilot in command and the person manipulating the flight controls of the small unmanned aircraft system; or

(2) A visual observer.

 

AC 107-2A

5.9 VLOS Aircraft Operation. The remote PIC and person manipulating the controls must be able to see the small unmanned aircraft at all times during flight (§ 107.31). The small unmanned aircraft must be operated closely enough to ensure visibility requirements are met during small UAS operations. This requirement also applies to the VO, if used, during the aircraft operation. The person maintaining VLOS may have brief moments in which he or she is not looking directly at or cannot see the small unmanned aircraft, but still retains the capability to see the small unmanned aircraft or quickly maneuver it back to VLOS. These moments may be necessary for the remote PIC to look at the controller to determine remaining battery life or for operational awareness. Should the remote PIC or person manipulating the controls lose VLOS of the small unmanned aircraft, he or she must regain VLOS as soon as practicable. Even though the remote PIC may briefly lose sight of the small unmanned aircraft, the remote PIC always has the see-and-avoid responsibilities set out in §§ 107.31 and 107.37. The circumstances that may prevent a remote PIC from fulfilling those responsibilities will vary, depending on factors such as the type of small UAS, the operational environment, and distance between the remote PIC and the small unmanned aircraft. For this reason, no specific time interval exists in which interruption of VLOS is permissible, as it would have the effect of potentially allowing a hazardous interruption of the operation. If the remote PIC cannot regain VLOS, the remote PIC or person manipulating the controls should follow pre-determined procedures for the loss of VLOS. The capabilities of the small UAS will govern the remote PIC’s determination as to the appropriate course of action. For example, the remote PIC may need to land the small unmanned aircraft immediately, enter hover mode, or employ a return-to-home sequence. The VLOS requirement does not prohibit actions such as scanning the airspace or briefly looking down at the small unmanned aircraft CS.

5.9.1 Unaided Vision. VLOS must be accomplished and maintained by unaided vision, except vision that is corrected by the use of eyeglasses (spectacles) or contact lenses. Vision aids, such as binoculars, may be used only momentarily to enhance situational awareness. For example, the remote PIC, person manipulating the controls, or VO may use vision aids to avoid inadvertently flying over persons or conflicting with other aircraft. First person view devices may be used during operations, but do not satisfy the VLOS requirement.

5.9.2 VO. The use of a VO is optional. The remote PIC may choose to use a VO to supplement situational awareness and VLOS. Although the remote PIC and person manipulating the controls must maintain the capability to see the small unmanned aircraft, using one or more VOs allows the remote PIC and person manipulating the controls to conduct other mission-critical duties (such as checking displays) while still ensuring situational awareness of the small unmanned aircraft. The VO must be able to communicate effectively with regard to the following:

- The small unmanned aircraft location, attitude, altitude, and direction of flight;

- The position of other aircraft or hazards in the airspace; and

- The determination that the small unmanned aircraft does not endanger the life or property of another (§ 107.33).

5.9.2.1 To ensure the VO can carry out his or her duties, the remote PIC must ensure the VO is positioned in a location where the VO is able to see the small unmanned aircraft sufficiently to maintain VLOS. The remote PIC can do this by specifying the location of the VO. The FAA also requires the remote PIC and VO coordinate to (1) scan the airspace where the small unmanned aircraft is operating for any potential collision hazard, and (2) maintain awareness of the position of the small unmanned aircraft through direct visual observation (§ 107.33). The remote PIC and VO would accomplish this by the VO communicating to the remote PIC and person manipulating the controls the flight status of the small unmanned aircraft and any collision hazards which may enter the area of operation, so that the remote PIC or person manipulating the controls can take appropriate action. The VO’s visual observation of the small unmanned aircraft and surrounding airspace would enable the VO to inform the remote PIC of the status.

5.9.2.2 To make this communication possible, the remote PIC, person manipulating the controls, and VO must work out a method of effective communication that does not create a distraction. Such a means of communication entails the constant ability to understand one another. The communication method must be determined prior to operation. Effective communication would permit the use of communication-assisting devices, such as a handheld radio, to facilitate communication from a distance.

5.9.3 VLOS at Night. Prior to a small UAS operation at night, the remote PIC should ensure he or she will be able to keep the small unmanned aircraft within the intended area of operation and within VLOS for the duration of the operation. In almost all cases involving operations at night, the remote PIC may need to restrict the operational area of the small unmanned aircraft. Reduced lighting and contrast at night may make it difficult for remote pilots to fulfill the requirements of § 107.31(a), requiring remote pilots to maintain the capability of visually discerning the location, attitude, altitude, and direction of the flight of the aircraft. A remote pilot cannot solely rely on the small unmanned aircraft’s anti-collision lighting, Ground Control Station (GCS) telemetry data displays, or a combination of the two for compliance with § 107.31.

 

 

Power company employees use an sUAS to inspect a long stretch of high voltage powerlines. Due to muddy conditions, their vehicle must stay beside the road and the crew uses binoculars to maintain visual line of sight with the aircraft. Is this sUAS operation in compliance with 14 CFR part 107?

  1. Compliant with part 107
  2. Not compliant with part 107

 

UA.I.B.K11 - Requirements when a visual observer is used

14 CFR §107.33   Visual observer.

If a visual observer is used during the aircraft operation, all of the following requirements must be met:

(a) The remote pilot in command, the person manipulating the flight controls of the small unmanned aircraft system, and the visual observer must maintain effective communication with each other at all times.

(b) The remote pilot in command must ensure that the visual observer is able to see the unmanned aircraft in the manner specified in §107.31.

(c) The remote pilot in command, the person manipulating the flight controls of the small unmanned aircraft system, and the visual observer must coordinate to do the following:

(1) Scan the airspace where the small unmanned aircraft is operating for any potential collision hazard; and

(2) Maintain awareness of the position of the small unmanned aircraft through direct visual observation.

 

A person whose sole task is watching the sUAS to report hazards to the rest of the crew is called:

  1. Visual observer
  2. Remote Pilot in Command
  3. Person manipulating the controls

UA.I.B.K12 - Prohibition of operating multiple sUAS

14 CFR §107.35   Operation of multiple small unmanned aircraft.

A person may not manipulate flight controls or act as a remote pilot in command or visual observer in the operation of more than one unmanned aircraft at the same time.

UA.I.B.K13 - Prohibition of carrying hazardous material

14 CFR §107.36   Carriage of hazardous material.

A small unmanned aircraft may not carry hazardous material. For purposes of this section, the term hazardous material is defined in 49 CFR 171.8.

 

AC 107-2A

5.15 Transportation of Property. Part 107 permits transportation of property by small unmanned aircraft for compensation or hire. These operations must be conducted within a confined area and in compliance with the operating restrictions of part 107. When transporting property, the transport must occur wholly within the bounds of a single State.

5.15.1  Limitations. As with other operations in part 107, small UAS operations involving the transport of property must be conducted within VLOS of the remote pilot. While the VLOS limitation can be waived for some operations under the rule, it cannot for transportation of property. Additionally, part 107 does not allow the operation of a small UAS from a moving vehicle or aircraft if the small unmanned aircraft is being used to transport property for compensation or hire. This limitation cannot be waived. The maximum total weight of the small unmanned aircraft (including any property being transported) is limited to under 55 pounds. Other provisions of part 107 require the remote pilot to know the small unmanned aircraft’s location; to determine the small unmanned aircraft’s attitude, altitude, and direction; to yield the right-of-way to other aircraft; and to maintain the ability to see and avoid other aircraft.

5.15.2  Hazardous Materials. Section 107.36 prohibits the carriage of hazardous materials by small unmanned aircraft. The carriage of any hazardous material on a small unmanned aircraft may only occur if the operator holds an exemption that permits such carriage. Title 14 CFR part 11 applies to petitions for exemption.

 

UA.I.B.K14 - Staying safely away from other aircraft and right-of-way rules

UA.I.B.K14a - See and avoid other aircraft and other potential hazard considerations of the Remote PIC

14 CFR §107.37   Operation near aircraft; right-of-way rules.

(a) Each small unmanned aircraft must yield the right of way to all aircraft, airborne vehicles, and launch and reentry vehicles. Yielding the right of way means that the small unmanned aircraft must give way to the aircraft or vehicle and may not pass over, under, or ahead of it unless well clear.

(b) No person may operate a small unmanned aircraft so close to another aircraft as to create a collision hazard.

 

AC 107-2A

5.13  Remaining Clear of Other Aircraft. A remote PIC has a responsibility to operate the small unmanned aircraft so that it remains clear of and yields to all other aircraft
(§ 107.37). This is traditionally referred to as “see and avoid.” To satisfy this responsibility, the remote PIC must know the location and flightpath of his or her small unmanned aircraft at all times. The remote PIC must be aware of other aircraft, persons, and property in the vicinity of the operating area, and maneuver the small unmanned aircraft to avoid collision. The remote PIC must take action to ensure other aircraft will not need to maneuver to avoid colliding with the small unmanned aircraft.

 

UA.I.B.K15 - Operations over human beings

14 CFR §107.39   Operation over human beings.

No person may operate a small unmanned aircraft over a human being unless—

(a) That human being is directly participating in the operation of the small unmanned aircraft;

(b) That human being is located under a covered structure or inside a stationary vehicle that can provide reasonable protection from a falling small unmanned aircraft; or

(c) The operation meets the requirements of at least one of the operational categories specified in subpart D of this part.

 

AC 107-2A

5.8 Operations Over Open-Air Assemblies of Persons. Remote pilots are prohibited from operating a small unmanned aircraft as a Category 1, 2, or 4 operation in sustained flight over open-air assemblies, unless the operation meets the requirements of 14 CFR part 89, § 89.110 or § 89.115(a). Category 3 operations are not allowed over an open-air assembly of persons.

Note: See paragraphs 8.3.2 and 8.3.6.4 for more information regarding open-air assemblies of persons.

 

8.1  Applicability. This chapter provides guidance concerning small unmanned aircraft eligibility requirements and remote pilot responsibilities for small unmanned aircraft operations over people.

8.2  Category of Operations. Part 107 establishes four categories of permissible operations over people. Category 1 is limited to a maximum weight of 0.55 pounds, including everything that is on board or otherwise attached to the aircraft at the time of takeoff and throughout the duration of each operation. In addition, the small unmanned aircraft must not contain any exposed rotating parts that would lacerate human skin upon impact with a human being. Category 2 or 3 operations may only be conducted with small unmanned aircraft that fulfill performance-based safety requirements, which limit the risk and severity of injuries based on potential hazards. Category 4 allows small unmanned aircraft issued an airworthiness certificate under 14 CFR part 21 to operate over people in accordance with part 107, so long as the operating limitations specified in the FAA-approved Flight Manual, or as otherwise specified by the Administrator, do not prohibit operations over people.

​8.3 Operations Over People. Section 107.39 prohibits operations of a small unmanned aircraft over a person who is not under a safe cover, such as a protective structure or a stationary vehicle, unless the operation is conducted in accordance with one of the four categories listed in part 107 subpart D. A remote pilot may operate a small unmanned aircraft over a person who is directly participating in the operation of the small unmanned aircraft. Direct participants include the remote pilot in command (PIC), another person who may be manipulating the controls, a visual observer (VO), or crewmembers necessary for the safety of the small unmanned aircraft operation. A direct participant should be directly involved in the small unmanned aircraft flight operation. The remote pilot assigns and briefs the direct participants in preparation for the operation. The remote pilot may comply with the requirements prohibiting operation over people in several ways. For example:

- Selecting an operational location where there are no people and none are expected to be present for the duration of the operation. If the remote pilot selects a location where people are present, the remote pilot should have a plan of action to ensure human beings remain clear of the operating area. The remote pilot may be able to direct people to remain indoors or remain under safe cover until the small unmanned aircraft flight operation has ended. Safe cover is a structure or stationary vehicle that protects a person from harm if the small unmanned aircraft impacts that structure or vehicle.

- Maintaining a safe distance from people who are not directly participating in the operation of the small unmanned aircraft.

- Ensuring the small unmanned aircraft will not be operated over any moving vehicles.

 

Note: The remote pilot should consider risk mitigations, and needs to take into

account the small unmanned aircraft’s course, speed, and trajectory, including the possibility of a failure, to determine whether the small unmanned aircraft would go over or strike a person who is not directly participating in the flight operation.

 

8.3.1  Minimum Distances from a Person. Part 107 does not impose a specific stand-off distance requirement from people when operating a small unmanned aircraft. The remote pilot may elect to observe a minimum stand-off distance to ensure the safety of the operation. When determining an appropriate stand-off distance, the remote pilot should consider the following factors:

The small unmanned aircraft’s performance, to include course, speed, trajectory, and maneuverability.

- Environmental conditions such as wind, including gusts, precipitation, and visibility.

Operational area conditions such as the location and movement of people, vessels, or vehicles, as well as terrain features, including structures or any other item that could affect the operational area where the small unmanned aircraft is being maneuvered.

Probable failures and the ability to perform emergency maneuvers, including emergency landings.

The remote pilot’s familiarity with and ability to maneuver the small unmanned aircraft.

 

Note: When conducting the small unmanned aircraft operation, the remote pilot should evaluate and make adjustments to this minimum distance from people as conditions change.

 

8.3.2  Operations Over Open-Air Assemblies of Persons. Remote pilots are prohibited from operating a small unmanned aircraft as a Category 1, 2, or 4 operation in sustained flight over open-air assemblies, unless the operation meets the requirements of § 89.110 or

8.3.2.1  “Sustained flight” over an open-air assembly of persons in a Category 1, 2, or 4 operation does not include a brief, one-time transiting over a portion of the assembled gathering where the transit is merely incidental to a point-to-point operation unrelated to the assembly.

8.3.2.2  Category 3 operations are not allowed over an open-air assembly of persons.

§ 89.115(a). This prohibition is subject to waiver.

8.3.3  Operations Over Moving Vehicles. Part 107 allows small unmanned aircraft operations over people inside moving vehicles with a small unmanned aircraft that meets the eligibility requirements for a Category 1, 2, 3, or 4 operation subject to one of the following conditions:

8.3.3.1 For Categories 1, 2, and 3 small unmanned aircraft, the operation must be conducted within or over a closed- or restricted-access site. Any person located inside a moving vehicle within the closed- or restricted-access site must be on notice that a small unmanned aircraft may fly over them; or 

8.3.3.2 If the operation is not conducted within or over a closed- or restricted-access site, the small unmanned aircraft must not maintain sustained flight over any moving vehicle.

Note: Category 4 small unmanned aircraft may be eligible to operate over moving vehicles as long as the operating limitations specified in the FAA-approved Flight Manual, or as otherwise specified by the Administrator, do not prohibit such operation.

 

8.3.4 Category 1 Operations. Part 107 establishes a category of operations over people using small unmanned aircraft that weigh 0.55 pounds (250 grams) or less on takeoff and throughout the duration of flight, including everything that is on board or otherwise attached to the aircraft. In addition to weight limits, Category 1 small unmanned aircraft must not contain any exposed rotating parts that would lacerate human skin upon impact. Remote pilots are prohibited from operating as a Category 1 operation in sustained flight over open-air assemblies unless the operation meets the requirements of § 89.110 or § 89.115(a). This prohibition is subject to waiver.

8.3.4.1  The remote pilot is responsible for determining that the small unmanned aircraft does not exceed the weight threshold and must ensure that the small unmanned aircraft does not contain any exposed rotating parts that would lacerate human skin. These requirements are in addition to the already existing pilot requirements of part 107, such as the preflight responsibilities listed in

§ 107.49 (see paragraph 8.11.1).

8.3.4.2  There are no applicant requirements for Category 1.

8.3.5 Category 2 Operations. To conduct Category 2 operations over people, the small unmanned aircraft must meet the requirements of § 107.120. To confirm such eligibility, the small unmanned aircraft must be listed on an FAA-accepted declaration of compliance (DOC).

8.3.5.1  It is the remote pilot’s responsibility to ensure that the small unmanned aircraft is listed on an FAA-accepted DOC as eligible for Category 2 operations and labeled as eligible to conduct Category 2 operations. A remote pilot can accomplish these things by checking online at https://uasdoc.faa.gov to see if the DOC is valid and by visually inspecting the aircraft to ensure a label identifying the aircraft as Category 2 is affixed to the aircraft. These requirements are in addition to the already existing pilot requirements of part 107, such as the preflight responsibilities listed in § 107.49.

8.3.5.2  Additionally, the small unmanned aircraft must display a label indicating eligibility to conduct Category 2 operations; have current remote pilot operating instructions that apply to the operation of the small unmanned aircraft, which are described below in paragraph 8.12; and be subject to a product support and notification process. (The applicant must submit the DOC containing specific information to affirm that the aircraft meets the safety requirements through an FAA-accepted means of compliance (MOC). See paragraph 8.9 for a detailed description of the DOC and the process for submitting the DOC.)

8.3.5.3  Remote pilots are prohibited from operating as a Category 2 operation in sustained flight over open-air assemblies unless the operation meets the requirements of § 89.110 or § 89.115(a). This prohibition is subject to waiver.

8.3.6 Category 3 Operations. To conduct Category 3 operations over people, a small unmanned aircraft must meet the safety requirements of § 107.130. To confirm such eligibility, the small unmanned aircraft must be listed on an FAA-accepted DOC.

8.3.6.1 It is the remote pilot’s responsibility to ensure the small unmanned aircraft is listed on an FAA-accepted DOC and labeled as eligible to conduct Category 3 operations. A remote pilot can accomplish these things by checking online at https://uasdoc.faa.gov to see if the DOC is valid and by visually inspecting the aircraft to ensure a label identifying the aircraft as Category 3 is affixed to the aircraft. These requirements are in addition to the already existing pilot requirements of part 107, such as the preflight responsibilities listed in § 107.49.

8.3.6.2 Additionally, the small unmanned aircraft must display a label identifying eligibility to conduct Category 3 operations; have current remote pilot operating instructions that apply to the operation of the small unmanned aircraft, which are described below in paragraph 8.12; and be subject to a product support and notification process. (The applicant must submit the DOC containing specific information to affirm that the aircraft meets the safety requirements through an FAA-accepted MOC. See paragraph 8.9 for a detailed description of the DOC and the process for submitting the DOC.)

8.3.6.3 Location Requirements and Restrictions. Category 3 operations are allowed under the following conditions:

- The operation is conducted over a closed- or restricted-access site and everyone located within the site must be on notice that a small unmanned aircraft may fly over them.

- The operation is not conducted within a closed- or restricted-access site, and the small unmanned aircraft does not sustain flight over any person unless that person is directly participating in the operation or located under a covered structure or inside a stationary vehicle that can provide reasonable protection from a falling small unmanned aircraft.

8.3.6.4 No Operations Over Open-Air Assemblies of People. Category 3 operations are not allowed over an open-air assembly of persons. While the FAA does not define open-air assembly by regulation, it employs a case-by-case approach in determining how to apply the term. Open-air assembly has to do with the density of people who are not directly participating in the operation of the small unmanned aircraft and the size of the operational area. An open-air assembly is generally understood as dense gatherings of people in the open, usually associated with concert venues, sporting events, parks, and beaches during certain events. Such assemblies are usually associated with public spaces. The FAA considers that some potential examples of open-air assemblies may include sporting events, concerts, parades, protests, political rallies, community festivals, or parks and beaches during certain events. Some potential examples that are less likely to be considered open-air assemblies include individual persons or families exiting a shopping center, persons participating in casual sports in an open area without spectators, individuals or small groups taking leisure in a park or on a beach, or individuals walking or riding a bike along a bike path. Whether an open-air assembly exists depends on a case-by-case determination based on the facts and circumstances of each case. The remote pilot must assess whether the operational area would be considered an open-air assembly prior to conducting flight operations.

8.3.6.5 Modifications. The remote pilot operating instructions may contain details concerning allowable modifications of the small unmanned aircraft. Modifications not allowed by the remote pilot operating instructions may render the small unmanned aircraft ineligible for operations over people. Such modifications would require submission of a new DOC. Additionally, the small unmanned aircraft may need to be relabeled to reflect the category of operations it is eligible to conduct. In the case of the sale or transfer of the small unmanned aircraft, or use of the aircraft by someone other than the applicant, the applicant must provide remote pilot operating instructions that reflect the aircraft’s eligible category and acceptable modifications. Therefore, the FAA encourages manufacturers of small unmanned aircraft to keep track of modifications that would require an update to the remote pilot operating instructions.

8.3.6.6  Closed- or Restricted-Access Sites. Category 3 operations may take place over or within closed- or restricted-access sites where everyone located within the site must be on notice that a small unmanned aircraft may fly over them, as long as the operational area is not considered an open-air assembly. People who are not directly participating in the operation of the small unmanned aircraft but who are performing functions at the closed- or restricted-access site must be on notice of potential small unmanned aircraft operations, and should be advised of precautions or other recommended actions to take, if necessary. Remote pilots are responsible for ensuring no inadvertent or unauthorized access to the site occur. Adequate assurance could include physical barriers such as barricading and fencing or monitoring personnel to ensure inadvertent or unauthorized access to the site does not occur. Geographical boundaries, such as rivers, canals, cliffs, and heavily wooded areas may serve as effective barriers to restrict access.

8.3.6.7  No Sustained Flight Over People. In addition to closed- or restricted-access sites, Category 3 operations may take place outside of a closed- or restricted-access site as long as the small unmanned aircraft does not sustain flight over people not participating in the operation of the small unmanned aircraft. This allows the remote pilot to operate over people, but only for a brief period. The intent of the requirement is momentary exposure, without sustained exposure over one or more persons. Sustained flight includes hovering above any person’s head, flying back and forth over a person, or circling above an uninvolved person in such a way that the small unmanned aircraft remains above some part of that person. The remote pilot should adjust the flightpath of the small unmanned aircraft to ensure minimal exposure of the aircraft over people, and may need to discontinue the operation if the flightpaths would require sustained flight over people.

8.3.7 Category 4 Operations. Certification is how the FAA manages risk through safety assurance. It provides the FAA confidence that a proposed product or operation will meet FAA safety expectations to protect the public. Eligible Category 4 small unmanned aircraft must have an airworthiness certificate issued by the FAA under part 21 and must be operated in accordance with the operating limitations specified in the FAA-approved Flight Manual or as otherwise specified by the Administrator. The airworthiness certificate allows small unmanned aircraft operations for compensation and hire.

8.3.7.1  The remote pilot conducting Category 4 operations over people must use an eligible small unmanned aircraft. To operate over people in accordance with § 107.140 and over moving vehicles in accordance with § 107.145(c), the remote pilot must operate the small unmanned aircraft in accordance with all operating limitations that apply to the small unmanned aircraft, as specified by the Administrator. These operating limitations must not prohibit operations over people.

8.3.7.2  Remote pilots are prohibited from operating as a Category 4 operation in sustained flight over open-air assemblies unless the operation meets the requirements of § 89.110 or § 89.115(a). This prohibition is subject to waiver.

8.3.7.3  Category 4 Maintenance. In order to preserve the continued airworthiness of the small unmanned aircraft and continue to meet a level of reliability that the FAA finds acceptable for flying over people in accordance with Category 4, the requirements of § 107.140(c) apply. Eligible Category 4 small unmanned aircraft must have maintenance, preventive maintenance, or alterations performed in a manner using the methods, techniques, and practices prescribed in the manufacturer’s current maintenance manual or instructions for continued airworthiness (ICA) prepared by its manufacturer, or other methods, techniques, and practices acceptable to the Administrator. Additionally, Category 4 small unmanned aircraft must be inspected in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions or other instructions acceptable to the Administrator and have maintenance, preventive maintenance, or alterations performed using parts of such a quality that the condition of the aircraft will be at least equal to its original or properly altered condition.

8.3.7.3.1  The person performing any maintenance, preventive maintenance, or alterations must use the methods, techniques, and practices prescribed in the manufacturer’s current maintenance manual or ICA that are acceptable to the Administrator, or other methods, techniques, and practices acceptable to the Administrator. The person who inspects the small unmanned aircraft must do so in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions or other instructions acceptable to the Administrator. Additionally, the person must have the knowledge, skill, and appropriate equipment to perform the work. The person performing the maintenance, preventive maintenance, or alterations must use parts of such a quality that the condition of the aircraft will be at least equal to its original or properly altered condition.

8.3.7.3.2  The owner or operator must maintain records of maintenance performed on the aircraft as well as records documenting the status of life-limited parts, compliance with Airworthiness Directives (AD), and inspection compliance of the small unmanned aircraft. Owner and operator responsibilities are discussed in paragraph 8.3.7.4.1.

8.3.7.4 Applicability of Maintenance and Record Retention Requirements. When a remote pilot operates a small unmanned aircraft in accordance with part 107, having an FAA-issued airworthiness certificate under part 21, the requirements of parts 43 and 91 do not apply. However, a small unmanned aircraft issued an airworthiness certificate may be eligible to operate under part 91, under certain circumstances. Part 107 contains necessary updates to the regulatory text to reflect the applicability of operating rules. Category 4 does not prescribe as many maintenance and record retention requirements as are required by parts 43 and 91, respectively. Therefore, it may be difficult for an owner or operator to switch between operating rules. A small unmanned aircraft operated and maintained in accordance with part 107 may find it difficult to show compliance with the requirements of part 43 and 91. To address this concern, an owner or operator can elect to comply with the relevant parts 43 and 91 requirements, even while operating in accordance with part 107. Under these circumstances, electing to comply with the relevant parts 43 and 91 requirements may help facilitate moving back and forth between operational parts, if desired, because the requirements of parts 43

and 91 are more stringent than those of § 107.140 with regard to maintenance and airworthiness.

8.3.7.4.1 Consistent with other regulatory frameworks, such as parts 91 and 135, the owner is responsible for maintaining the small unmanned aircraft in accordance with the requirements of § 107.140(c). However, if the owner enters into an agreement with another entity to operate the small unmanned aircraft, the operator is responsible for the maintenance and records retention requirements for small unmanned aircraft operated in accordance with Category 4 under part 107. The FAA expects most operators of Category 4 small unmanned aircraft operating under part 107 will also be the owner, or operating under direction of the owner. In this case, the owner is responsible for compliance with the Category 4 small unmanned aircraft maintenance and records retention requirements. To maintain flexibility for those owners of Category 4 small unmanned aircraft who wish to enter into an agreement with another entity for the operation of their small unmanned aircraft without the owner’s intervention or control, § 107.140(c) provides the means for the responsibility of maintenance requirements and retention of records to be clearly defined in such an agreement. If so specified in the agreement, the FAA would hold the operator responsible for compliance with the Category 4 small unmanned aircraft maintenance and records retention requirements. An agreement between an owner and an operator may be in the form of a written lease or contract, verbal agreement, or other agreement. If any agreement is found invalid or unenforceable, then the owner has the responsibility to meet these requirements. The provisions of any agreement should address, at a minimum, the requirements of § 107.140(c).

 

 

8.4 Applicant. An applicant includes any person who produces, designs, or modifies a small unmanned aircraft eligible to operate over people within the United States. An applicant may produce many small unmanned aircraft, sell kits from which to build small unmanned aircraft, or modify a small unmanned aircraft in a way that affects the eligibility of the small unmanned aircraft to conduct a different category of operations over people than it was previously eligible.

8.4.1  An applicant who manufactures and sells a kit that contains all the components and parts from which to build an operable small unmanned aircraft must comply with the requirements of part 107 subpart D, if the aircraft is intended for operations over people. The kit must contain all the components necessary to build an operable small unmanned aircraft, and would not require the owner to purchase any additional materials. Before the kit is sold, the applicant must ensure that the completely assembled small unmanned aircraft, not only its individual component parts, complies with the performance-based safety requirements to determine eligibility using an FAA-accepted MOC and declare compliance. This will ensure that the small unmanned aircraft meets the requirements of part 107 subpart D.

8.4.2  Someone who builds a small unmanned aircraft from separate components and parts not from a kit is an applicant. For example, someone may purchase the parts of a small unmanned aircraft separately, and build the small unmanned aircraft. An applicant is required to submit a DOC in order to conduct Category 2 or 3 operations.

8.4.3  An applicant may be a person who modifies a small unmanned aircraft listed on an existing DOC, resulting in noncompliance with the original declaration. A noncompliance means the small unmanned aircraft has been altered and is no longer in the same configuration as originally declared. If the small unmanned aircraft is changed so that it is no longer eligible for operations over people, a new DOC must be submitted prior to conducting operations over people or moving vehicles within that category. An applicant should specify allowable modifications in the remote pilot operating instructions (please see paragraph 8.12 below for information concerning remote pilot operating instructions). This ensures a remote pilot who may replace parts or otherwise modify the small unmanned aircraft is aware of which modifications would be allowable for the category of operation. An applicant may develop updates for a small unmanned aircraft after the remote pilot takes possession of it, such as a software update or hardware update. To communicate these updates to the remote pilots, the manufacturer should make operating instructions for the new capabilities of the small unmanned aircraft available.

8.4.4  Any person who makes a modification not permissible by the remote pilot operating instructions to a small unmanned aircraft eligible for Category 2 or Category 3 operations over people renders that small unmanned aircraft ineligible. If the person making the modification intends to conduct Category 2 or Category 3 operations over people with the modified small unmanned aircraft, that person is required to take on the responsibilities of an applicant. In this case, the applicant is required to determine the modified small unmanned aircraft meets the performance-based safety requirements for either Category 2 or Category 3, or both, using an FAA-accepted MOC and submit a new DOC. This principle applies to any person who modifies an existing ineligible small unmanned aircraft with the intention of conducting Category 2 or Category 3, or both, operations over people.

8.4.5  Maintenance actions performed on an eligible Category 2 or Category 3 aircraft that do not change the configuration or characteristics of the aircraft would not require a new DOC to be submitted. For example, if replacing propellers is listed as an allowed modification in the remote pilot operating instructions, a new DOC would not be required. However, replacing propellers not covered in the remote pilot operating instructions requires submission of a new DOC to conduct Category 2 or Category 3 operations over people. Remote pilot operating instructions should include a list of allowed modifications for the small unmanned aircraft to remain eligible.

 

8.5 Means of Compliance—General Information. An MOC is a method to show that a small unmanned aircraft does not exceed the applicable injury severity limit upon impact with a human being, does not contain any exposed rotating parts that would lacerate human skin, and does not contain any safety defects. An MOC must be accepted by the FAA before an applicant can rely on it to declare compliance with the safety requirements for operations over people. Anyone may submit an MOC to the FAA for acceptance if it fulfills Category 2 or Category 3 safety requirements. An individual or a voluntary consensus standards body (e.g., ASTM International or SAE) could develop an acceptable MOC. The MOC must demonstrate through test, analysis, or inspection that the small unmanned aircraft is eligible for operations over people in Category 2, Category 3, or both. The MOC may include consensus standards. Once the FAA accepts an MOC, any person submitting a DOC could use it to establish that a small unmanned aircraft fulfills the requirements of the rule. An applicant requesting FAA acceptance of an MOC must submit certain information to the FAA in a manner the Administrator specifies. When reviewing an MOC, the FAA will utilize a comprehensive set of criteria. The FAA will determine whether the testing, analysis, or inspection described in the MOC demonstrates that a small unmanned aircraft meets the appropriate regulatory requirements. An MOC must address the injury severity limits, the prohibition on exposed rotating parts that would cause lacerations, and verification that there are no safety defects. The FAA will determine whether the proposed MOC aligns with accepted methods used by the medical industry, consumer safety groups, or other peer-reviewed test methods. In addition, the FAA will consider whether the proposed MOC relies on mitigations that require exceptional remote pilot skill or excessive workload to satisfy the requirements.

8.5.1  The FAA must accept an MOC before an applicant can rely on it to demonstrate compliance with the performance-based safety requirements for operations over human beings. An FAA-accepted MOC is subject to an ongoing review by the FAA to ensure the MOC remains valid. If the FAA determines the MOC no longer meets any or all of the requirements to demonstrate compliance with part 107 subpart D, the FAA may rescind acceptance of an MOC. If the FAA elects to rescind an MOC, it will publish a notice of rescission in the Federal Register.

8.5.2  The MOC options an applicant may use are:

1. The FAA-provided MOC, discussed in this AC.

2. An FAA-accepted MOC developed by a voluntary consensus standards body or other entity, or an FAA-accepted MOC developed independent of the FAA. An MOC developed by an individual applicant requires the same level of FAA review as an MOC developed by a voluntary consensus standards body. The FAA generally works with voluntary consensus standards bodies in the development of these standards. As a result, any MOC based on these standards will already have gone through a comprehensive review process during development.

8.6 FAA-Provided MOC. Without prejudice to any other MOC that an applicant may propose and the FAA may accept, the FAA offers one already accepted MOC for both the impact kinetic energy and exposed rotating parts requirements provided at
§§ 107.120(a)(1) and (2) (Category 2) and 107.130(a)(1) and (2) (Category 3). The FAA-provided MOC for the injury severity limitations is developed through an applicant’s calculation of the small unmanned aircraft’s maximum kinetic energy. This MOC does not account for impact dynamics or other factors, but consists of using only the formula the FAA describes to calculate the small unmanned aircraft’s maximum kinetic energy. This FAA-accepted MOC provides manufacturers with at least one method to demonstrate their small unmanned aircraft would meet the requirements to operate over people. As a result, the MOC involves confirming (1) the impact of a small unmanned aircraft does not exceed a certain kinetic energy limit, (2) the small unmanned aircraft does not contain any exposed rotating parts, and (3) does not contain any safety defects.

8.6.1 Impact Kinetic Energy. An applicant may use the FAA-provided MOC to satisfy the impact kinetic energy requirements by confirming the impact of the small unmanned aircraft does not exceed the applicable injury severity limits during a typical failure mode at the aircraft’s maximum performance capabilities. To test a small unmanned aircraft using this MOC, an applicant would first determine the maximum forward airspeed that the small unmanned aircraft is capable of attaining at full power in level flight. This would be done using a reliable and accurate airspeed measurement method under typical environmental conditions. For example, an applicant could measure the maximum speed using a Global Positioning System (GPS) groundspeed indicator, a radar gun, or tape measure and stop watch. Note that small unmanned aircraft operated under part 107 may not exceed the speed limitations in part 107 unless authorized under a Certificate of Waiver (CoW) or an exemption (§ 107.51(a)).

8.6.1.1  Next, an applicant would determine the ground impact speed resulting from an unpowered free-fall from the highest altitude the small unmanned aircraft is capable of attaining at full power. Note that aircraft operating under part 107 may not exceed the altitude limitations of that rule unless authorized under a CoW or an exemption (§ 107.51(b)). The ground impact speed could be determined by performing a drop test from the altitude determined in the previous step using a reliable and accurate vertical speed measurement method under typical environmental conditions.

8.6.1.2  If an applicant determines it is unreasonable to perform a drop test from the highest attainable altitude, then the applicant can perform a drop test from a lower altitude. The lower altitude must be sufficient to determine the small unmanned aircraft free-fall aerodynamic characteristics, such as the coefficient of drag and terminal velocity, to accurately calculate the ground impact speed from a free-fall from the highest attainable altitude. The manufacturer would state in the supporting data the applicant submits pursuant to § 107.155 the environmental conditions under which the applicant determined the maximum speeds. The applicant would also describe any unique test conditions for both the level flight and free-fall scenarios.

8.6.1.3  The above tests account for speeds a small unmanned aircraft could reach prior to or during a typical failure mode, such as losing power and falling with both a vertical and horizontal speed component. The tests do not take into account small unmanned aircraft failure modes or pilot actions that would cause the small unmanned aircraft to exceed the speeds determined in the previous steps. One example is a powered descent in which the ground impact speed of the small unmanned aircraft exceeds its unpowered free-fall ground impact speed. The FAA assumes these types of failure modes or pilot actions are not typical, and while possible, have a low likelihood of occurring. If an applicant determines these types of failure modes or pilot actions could typically occur and result in speeds greater than those determined in the previous steps, then the applicant should use the higher speeds to determine the maximum impact kinetic energy.

8.6.1.4 Once the applicant determines the maximum speeds associated with a horizontal and vertical impact, the applicant would determine the highest combination of these speeds the aircraft could achieve as a result of a typical failure in order to determine the maximum impact kinetic energy. The applicant should identify and assess typical failures caused by system or equipment loss of function or malfunction as well as those that could be caused by pilot error.

8.6.1.58.6.1.5 In consideration of the maximum speeds and typical failures described above, the applicant should determine the maximum impact kinetic energy using the following equation:

KEimpact = 0.0155 × × v2

Where KEimpact is the maximum impact kinetic energy in ft-lbs, is the weight of the small unmanned aircraft measured in pounds, and is the maximum impact speed measured in feet per second (ft/s).

1. For example, a small unmanned aircraft that weighs 1.0 pound and has a maximum impact speed of 26 ft/s has a maximum impact kinetic energy of:

KEimpact = 0.0155 × 1.0 × (26)= 10.5 ft-lbs

2. Similarly, a small unmanned aircraft that weighs 1.0 pound and has a maximum impact speed of 40 ft/s has an impact kinetic energy of:

KEimpact = 0.0155 × 1.0 × (40)= 24.8 ft-lbs

8.6.1.6 The two tables below provide examples of maximum impact speeds, rounded to whole numbers, associated with the impact kinetic energy thresholds of the different categories and the weight of the small unmanned aircraft. One table provides speeds in feet per second and the other table provides speeds in miles per hour (mph). Applicants may use these tables when following this MOC based on the maximum performance of the small unmanned aircraft. These tables do not consider any energy absorbing characteristics of a small unmanned aircraft that may reduce the amount of energy that is transferred to a person during a collision.

8.6.1.7 If the small unmanned aircraft incorporates airspeed or altitude limiting systems or equipment that, when installed or enabled, restrict its forward airspeed or altitude in order to meet an impact kinetic energy requirement, then those systems or equipment should be installed or enabled when performing the tests described above. If compliance with the impact kinetic energy requirement depends on the proper function of those systems or equipment, then the applicant should provide in the remote pilot operating instructions information on the proper use of those systems or equipment, as well as any restrictions. The FAA anticipates applicants will implement these types of systems or equipment through hardware, software, or a combination of both. If the small unmanned aircraft can be operated with or without these systems or equipment enabled or installed, such as in a variable-mode small unmanned aircraft, then the applicant should provide information in the remote pilot operating instructions to ensure pilots understand any restrictions or limitations associated with the different modes.

8.6.1.8  This MOC does not account for the use or testing of design features such as parachutes, ballistic recovery systems, or other deployable devices that once deployed, reduce impact velocity. Such features can establish that a small unmanned aircraft would impact a person with a reduced amount of kinetic energy. Such design features will require the FAA’s review to determine whether they assist in achieving compliance with injury severity limitations. Outside the scope of the FAA-provided MOC, an applicant may choose to demonstrate compliance with the injury severity limitations using deployable devices, as long as the applicant describes how the devices are used to meet the safety requirements in the proposed MOC.

8.6.1.9  The MOC detailed above does not take into account the effect of the small unmanned aircraft’s structural configuration or materials of construction during an impact with a person. It assumes that the total kinetic energy of the small unmanned aircraft would be transferred to the person upon impact. In reality, a small unmanned aircraft’s structural configuration, materials of construction, or other design features may reduce the amount of the total kinetic energy that is transferred to a person during an impact. The use of energy absorbing materials, or an energy absorbing protective cage, may reduce the transfer of kinetic energy during an impact with a person. Under these circumstances, an applicant may wish to establish the amount of kinetic energy transferred to a person during an impact based on the impact absorbing characteristics of the small unmanned aircraft. If an applicant shows the aircraft does not transfer more than the kinetic energy limit to a person upon impact, the aircraft may be eligible for Category 2 or 3 operations over people. This demonstration would require an MOC that is not provided in this AC.

8.6.1.10  The FAA acknowledges limitations associated with the FAA-provided MOC. The FAA intended with this FAA-provided MOC to provide a test method that applicants could use to show compliance with the injury severity limitations, with the anticipation that industry can and will develop more flexible MOC through a voluntary consensus standards body or otherwise. The FAA expects these industry standards to consider that small unmanned aircraft often have non-rigid structures, which can reduce the kinetic energy transferred to a person upon impact. The FAA encourages the development of such MOC. Please see paragraphs 8.7 and 8.8 below for information concerning other MOC.

8.6.2 Exposed Rotating Parts. One means, but not the only means, of complying with the requirement would be to manufacture the small unmanned aircraft so that it does not contain any exposed rotating parts. For example, if the propellers that provide lift and thrust for the small unmanned aircraft are internal to the unmanned aircraft, such as in a ducted fan configuration, and would not make contact with a person as a result of a typical impact, then the parts would not be exposed. Therefore, the small unmanned aircraft would satisfy this requirement. Testing and analysis may be required to determine that the rotating parts could not become exposed as a result of a typical impact with a person. If the forces on the small unmanned aircraft during an impact with a person are likely to cause structural failures that cause the rotating parts to become exposed, then that design would not satisfy this requirement.

8.7 Voluntary Consensus Standards Body MOC. A voluntary consensus standards body incorporates openness, balance, due process, appeals process, and consensus. These characteristics result in a peer review of voluntary consensus standards. Voluntary consensus standards bodies are composed of a wide selection of industry participants, often including the FAA.

8.7.1  The FAA encourages industry stakeholders to develop additional test methods and analyses to provide multiple ways for applicants to comply with the applicable safety requirements. Two potential approaches for industry to consider are provided in the following paragraphs.

8.7.2  A person may develop a standard for small unmanned aircraft having rotating parts that are protected by safety features, such as propeller guards. The standard could require testing by the applicant to support the determination that the protective safety features accomplish their intended function of preventing rotating parts from contacting a person during impact. If the applicant has tested those safety features and demonstrated they would remain intact during impact, this could be one means of demonstrating that exposed rotating parts would not be capable of lacerating human skin upon impact.

8.7.3  If a small unmanned aircraft has rotating parts that are exposed without any protective safety features, it may be shown through testing and analysis that the rotating parts would not lacerate human skin upon impact. By analyzing test data that evaluates the size, shape, rotational speed, material, and orientation of the rotating parts, and the severity of injuries that would be caused by these parts under any impact scenarios, it can be determined that the rotating parts would not lacerate human skin upon impact.

8.7.4  The method of analysis or testing should be commensurate with the applicant’s means of compliance. If a small unmanned aircraft has propellers made out of flexible material, an applicant would likely not need to perform sophisticated analysis or testing to demonstrate that the exposed rotating parts would not cause lacerations to human skin upon impact. If an applicant chooses to design a small unmanned aircraft with exposed propellers with sharp leading edges made of a rigid material, such as a carbon fiber composite that are driven by high torque motors, that applicant would likely have to perform a more sophisticated analysis or testing. The objective of the analysis or testing is to demonstrate that the propellers would not cause lacerations upon impact. This testing standard requires the applicant to demonstrate it across a range of typical human encounters and unmanned aircraft operational scenarios. Categories 2 and 3 require the manufacturer to show the unmanned aircraft would not cause lacerations (emphasis added). Therefore, the FAA does not expect applications to test for every human encounter, merely the ones that are typical.

8.7.5  The unmanned aircraft may also have a rotor that does not have sufficient momentum to lacerate normal human skin, and may implement technology to stop the exposed rotating part before it would lacerate skin. Another example of how an aircraft could comply with the prohibition on exposed rotating parts that would cause lacerations would be to use materials that are incapable of lacerating human skin. An example of this would be to use or design rotors or propellers with properties that break away or flex upon impact to eliminate lacerations without the use of guards or shrouds. For Categories 2 and 3, any method an applicant chooses to use to comply with the exposed rotating parts requirement must be demonstrated through an FAA-accepted MOC.

8.7.6 Exposed rotating parts may pose a significant laceration hazard if they contact human skin, which is unacceptable for the safety of the public. The FAA distinguishes between a laceration to mean a cut that goes all the way through the skin while an abrasion means a superficial injury to the skin. Additionally, the FAA uses the expression “typical human encounter” to describe normal impacts, such as unmanned aircraft impacting a human being due to a loss of control, small unmanned aircraft failures, or remote pilot error.

8.8 Means of Compliance. Any person may propose an MOC to satisfy the safety requirements of § 107.120(a) or § 107.130(a). A person would submit a proposed MOC to the FAA for review and acceptance, showing that its small unmanned aircraft would not exceed the applicable injury severity limit upon impact with a human being, does not contain any exposed rotating parts that would lacerate human skin, and does not contain any safety defects. The FAA must accept an MOC before an applicant can rely on it to declare compliance with the performance-based safety requirements of § 107.120(a) or
§ 107.130(a), or both.

8.8.1  An applicant requesting FAA acceptance of an MOC should carefully consider the additional time and effort that could be necessary to coordinate an MOC when scheduling its projects. FAA coordination may require the efforts of FAA technical specialists, Chief Scientific Technical Advisors, or other governmental agencies. The use of existing FAA-accepted MOC would be more expeditious because the FAA will already have reviewed such MOC. As with voluntary consensus standards bodies, some developers of an MOC may not be applicants also submitting a DOC to the FAA for acceptance. Guidance for developing and submitting an MOC to the FAA for acceptance is provided below.

8.8.2  An applicant requesting FAA acceptance of an MOC should submit its proposed MOC at https://uasdoc.faa.gov. An acceptable MOC may be used to establish the small unmanned aircraft fulfills the safety requirements set forth in § 107.120(a) or § 107.130(a). The MOC must show, through test, analyses, inspection, or any combination of these options that the small unmanned aircraft meets the safety requirements for the respective category of operation over people. The proposed MOC must include a detailed description of the MOC and an explanation of how applying the MOC fulfills the safety requirements of

§ 107.120(a) or § 107.130(a), or both. The FAA will evaluate the testing procedure and substantiation documents on a case-by-case basis.

8.8.3  When reviewing an MOC, the FAA will utilize criteria that include, but are not limited to, the following:

8.8.3.1  To evaluate compliance with the appropriate safety requirements, the FAA will determine whether the applicant’s methods demonstrate the applicant has properly mitigated the severity of human injury that could occur to an acceptable safety level, as defined in the appropriate aircraft category.

8.8.3.2  The FAA will also determine whether the tests or analyses are performed in accordance with accepted methods used by the medical industry, consumer safety groups, or other peer-reviewed test methods.

8.8.3.3  In addition, the FAA will determine whether the proposed MOC requires unreasonable skill on behalf of the remote pilot or incorporation of mitigations to meet the requirements.

8.8.3.4  The FAA will determine whether the MOC addresses design features such as deployable devices (i.e., parachutes) or other features independent of the small unmanned aircraft to determine whether they assist in fulfilling the safety requirements.

8.8.4  The FAA will indicate acceptance of an MOC by publishing a Notice of Availability in the Federal Register identifying the MOC as accepted and notifying the applicant.

8.8.5  An MOC accepted by the FAA is considered valid whether it comes from a consensus standards body or a person. If a proposed MOC is not accepted by the FAA, the FAA will notify the applicant requesting acceptance of an MOC of any issues with the proposed MOC.

8.9 Declarations of Compliance. For a small unmanned aircraft to be eligible to conduct Category 2 or 3 operations over people, the person who designs, produces, or modifies the small unmanned aircraft must declare compliance with the appropriate performance-based safety requirements through use of an FAA-accepted MOC. The FAA will receive such DOCs via an electronic form available on the FAA’s website https://uasdoc.faa.gov. Submission of a DOC involves the applicant declaring the following information:

- The applicant has demonstrated that the small unmanned aircraft meets the performance-based safety requirements for the category or categories of operation through an FAA-accepted MOC;

- The applicant maintains a process to notify owners of small unmanned aircraft and the FAA of any unsafe conditions that render those small unmanned aircraft noncompliant with part 107 subpart D;

- The applicant verifies that the small unmanned aircraft does not contain any safety defects; and

- The applicant will allow the FAA access to its facilities and technical documents, records, or reports required or witness any test necessary to determine compliance with the DOC.

8.9.1  Contents of a DOC. An applicant intending to promote a small unmanned aircraft as eligible for operations over people in accordance with Category 2 or Category 3 must submit a DOC to the FAA for acceptance. An applicant submits the DOC through the FAA’s website https://uasdoc.faa.gov. A completed DOC will include information the FAA requires for both determining that a small unmanned aircraft complies with the applicable safety requirements and a means of tracking those models of small unmanned aircraft that were declared compliant. In accordance with § 107.160, applicants will declare they have met the requirements of the rule through an FAA-accepted MOC and include the following information:

1. FAA-accepted MOC used.

2. Name of the applicant.

3. Physical address of the applicant.

4. Email address of the applicant (used for correspondence with the FAA).

5. Small unmanned aircraft make and model, and series, if applicable.

6. Serial number or range of serial numbers for the small unmanned aircraft subject to the DOC (open-ended are permitted).

7. Whether the DOC is an initial or an amended DOC, and if amended, the reason for the resubmittal.

8. Declaration that the applicant:

Has demonstrated the small unmanned aircraft meets the injury severity limits of Category 2, Category 3, or both, and the prohibition on exposed rotating parts that would cause lacerations;

Has verified the small unmanned aircraft does not have any safety defects;

Has satisfied the requirement to maintain a product support and notification process; and

Will, upon request, allow the Administrator to inspect its facilities and its technical data.

9. Any other information as required by the Administrator.

8.9.2  Additionally, if an applicant resubmits an FAA-accepted DOC, the applicant must include the reason for the amendment. For example, the amendment could include additional serial numbers, document the correction of a safety defect, or correct the misspelling of the applicant’s name or an incorrect address. The FAA will maintain a list of FAA-accepted DOCs and make them publicly available on the FAA website. This allows the FAA and the public to determine which makes and models, and series, if applicable, of small unmanned aircraft are eligible to conduct Categories 2 and 3 operations over people.

8.9.3  After an applicant declares a specific small unmanned aircraft meets the requirements of a particular category, the applicant should ensure the small unmanned aircraft continues to comply with the applicable requirements. By submitting the DOC to the FAA for acceptance, the applicant attests it meets the requirements for part 107 subpart D, including:

8.9.3.1  The applicant declares it has established and maintains a support and notification process to the public applicable to the small unmanned aircraft that are listed on the DOC. The product support and notification process exists to notify small unmanned aircraft owners, the public, and the FAA of safety issue that result in noncompliance with regulatory requirements. Notification to the small unmanned aircraft owners could take the form of a notice on a website or electronic notification to owners. Owners may register their small unmanned aircraft with the manufacturer under a warranty program, or to update the small unmanned aircraft’s software. Manufacturer registration may be used to advise the remote pilot that the small unmanned aircraft does not fulfill the safety requirements for eligibility in one or more categories of operations over people. The person who holds the FAA-accepted DOC should exercise due diligence to ensure the communications involving potential noncompliant conditions are communicated to the responsible individual. Manufacturers are encouraged to design and utilize a system to facilitate communication between the applicant and the owners of the small unmanned aircraft. Manufacturers should implement their product support and notification system to communicate corrective actions for safety defects. When the manufacturer can confirm that the safety defects have been corrected for specific serial numbers, a new DOC may be submitted. The manufacturer must verify that those serial numbered aircraft have no safety defects prior to submitting a new DOC.

8.9.3.2  The DOC includes an agreement indicating the person who holds the FAA-accepted DOC will allow the Administrator to inspect its facilities, technical data, and any manufactured small unmanned aircraft when a safety issue warrants that level of FAA involvement. Prior to inspecting the facilities, the FAA will coordinate with the holder of the DOC in advance of the FAA visit to explain the safety concerns. Upon receipt of the FAA notification, the responsible person should be prepared to discuss production and safety procedures, including engineering and quality systems, procedures manuals, and handbooks, when practical. The FAA will expect the responsible person who holds the DOC to be prepared to discuss an evaluation of and proposed solution to the safety concerns. This may include a review of:

Critical processes (including special processes) and critical suppliers.

​- Recent design changes.

Significant changes in manufacturing personnel, procedures, or inspections.

​- Quality issues or escapes.

Witness any tests necessary to determine compliance with part 107 subpart D.

- Any additional relevant correspondence or data pertaining to issues discovered in the course of new product deliveries or acceptance.

- Service history data and service difficulties.

Note: The FAA expects the responsible person to be prepared with any necessary information regarding the items above and other relevant quality data, procedures, or records available to evaluate the safety concern.

8.9.4 FAA Acceptance of a DOC. If the FAA determines the applicant has demonstrated compliance with the requirements of part 107 subpart D, it will notify the applicant that it has accepted the DOC. All FAA-accepted DOCs will be made available on the FAA’s website.

8.9.5 Rescinding a DOC. In determining whether to rescind a DOC, the FAA will consider any safety defect, material, component, or feature on a small unmanned aircraft that increases the likelihood that the small unmanned aircraft could cause a serious injury to a person during an operation over people. If such a condition exists, the FAA will initiate contact with the person who holds the DOC by email notification to discuss resolution of the safety defect. The FAA could rescind a DOC if a small unmanned aircraft is no longer compliant with the applicable safety requirements or the prohibition on exposed rotating parts that would cause lacerations. Additionally, the FAA could rescind a DOC if a small unmanned aircraft contains a safety defect and the applicant is unable or unwilling to correct it or if the FAA finds a DOC is in violation of § 107.5.

8.9.5.1  In a case where a person initially declared a small unmanned aircraft compliant with both Category 2 and Category 3, and the FAA finds it necessary to rescind the DOC for one of the categories, the FAA will take the following actions. First, the FAA will issue a notice to the applicant proposing to rescind the DOC. The notice would set forth the agency’s basis for the proposed rescission and provide the applicant 30 calendar-days to submit information to refute the proposed notice of rescission. If the holder of the DOC does not provide information demonstrating that the small unmanned aircraft meets the applicable safety requirements within 30 calendar-days, the FAA will issue a notice rescinding the DOC. In addition to publishing any final rescission of a DOC on the FAA website, the FAA may publish notification of any applicable safety defects in the Federal Register as a Notice of Availability. Such a notice will inform remote pilots that the identified aircraft are no longer eligible to conduct operations over people.

8.9.5.2  If the FAA rescinds a DOC for a small unmanned aircraft because of a safety issue, a small unmanned aircraft can be modified such that the safety issue is resolved. The person may then seek acceptance of the modified small unmanned aircraft by submitting a new DOC. In a scenario in which the FAA previously rescinded a DOC due to a safety issue, the newly submitted DOC will be subject to review by the FAA. The applicant will receive notification from the FAA once the DOC is accepted.

8.9.5.3 If the FAA rescinds a DOC, the FAA will publish the rescission on the FAA website. If the person resolved the safety issue and submitted a new or amended DOC and the FAA determines the person has corrected the safety issue, the FAA will accept the resubmitted DOC.

8.9.6  Emergency Rescission. Prior to rescission of a DOC, the FAA will engage in the safety issue notification process with the person who holds the DOC. However, if the FAA determines an emergency exists and safety of persons requires an immediate rescission of a DOC, the FAA may rescind a DOC without a prior notification as provided in Title 49 of the United States Code (49 U.S.C.) § 46105(c). This emergency rescission would be a final agency action.

8.9.7  Petition for Reconsideration of a Rescission of a DOC. If the FAA rescinds a DOC due to an unresolved safety issue, the person who holds the DOC has the opportunity to petition the FAA for reconsideration. Within 60 days of the date of issuance of a notice of rescission, the person may seek reconsideration by submitting a request to the FAA. The petition for reconsideration must demonstrate that information was not present in the original response and an explanation for why the information was missing, that the FAA made a factual error in its decision to rescind, or that the FAA did not correctly interpret a law, regulation, or precedent. The FAA will consider this petition and issue a final decision either affirming the rescission or withdrawing the rescission. After the FAA issues its final agency decision, the person whose DOC was the subject of the rescission has the option to appeal the action as provided in 49 U.S.C. § 46110. A remote pilot is required to cease operations over people with a small unmanned aircraft listed on a rescinded DOC until final decision has been made on the appeal.

8.10 Accountability for Holders of DOCs. Any person who holds an FAA-accepted DOC under part 107 subpart D is accountable for the person’s products in several ways. First, applicants must have a way to track their products and to inform the public if their product is deemed unsafe to operate in a particular category for operations over people. Additionally, applicants must allow the FAA access to technical data, as well as facilities, if the FAA determines an operational safety issue warrants that level of involvement. By submitting the DOC, the applicant declares its willingness to abide by these requirements. The FAA may review small unmanned aircraft applicants’ procedures, processes, and facilities to determine compliance with this subpart. If the FAA identifies a safety issue that warrants review of an applicant’s data, records, or facilities, an applicant will be required to grant access to the information. The FAA expects the holder of an accepted DOC to ensure the following:

The validity of the MOC to ensure that any injury to a human being upon impact with small unmanned aircraft that is the subject of the DOC does not exceed established safety requirements;

That the construction of the small unmanned aircraft, related safety analysis, and service history do not reveal the existence of any hazardous conditions or safety defects that could result in noncompliance with the safety requirements; and

Monitor its manufacturing processes, operational usage, and accident and incident data to ensure the small unmanned aircraft continues to comply with the applicable performance-based safety requirements. This monitoring may also take the form of information received from owners and operators of the small unmanned aircraft.

8.10.1 Safety Defects. The FAA requires holders of an FAA-accepted DOC to comply with this rule by correcting safety defects that would cause a small unmanned aircraft to no longer meet the safety requirements for Categories 2 and 3 operations over people. Any defects identified after the DOC has been accepted must be resolved. If the unresolved safety defect results in the FAA rescinding the DOC, the person correcting the safety issue must submit a new DOC prior to being eligible to resume operations over people. Alternatively, if the holder of the DOC does not correct the safety issue, the owner or operator of the aircraft could correct the safety issue and submit a new DOC, if they are capable and willing to satisfy all eligibility requirements of the DOC. Holders of an FAA-accepted DOC are required to establish and maintain a product support and notification process and provide remote pilot operating instructions for the respective small unmanned aircraft.

8.10.1.1 Safety defects may be identified through a variety of means. The safety defects may be identified through owner complaints, industry safety bulletins, or an individual manufacturer’s notification. If the safety defect has been identified by the FAA, we will notify the holder of the FAA-accepted DOC of the defect. The holder will have an opportunity to respond by either correcting the defect or demonstrating the small unmanned aircraft meets the safety requirements. Any rescission of a DOC will be made available on the FAA website. These actions serve to notify remote pilots that the identified aircraft is no longer eligible to conduct operations over people. The rescission of a DOC does not render a small unmanned aircraft inoperable, but rather unsafe and ineligible for operations over people.

8.10.2 Owner and FAA Notification Process. An applicant who seeks FAA acceptance of a DOC will declare on its DOC that it has a process in place to notify owners, the public, and the FAA of any defect of condition that causes the small unmanned aircraft to no longer meet the requirements of the subpart or that it contains any safety defects.

8.10.2.1 If, after submitting and receiving FAA acceptance of a DOC for a particular small unmanned aircraft, the applicant determines that the small unmanned aircraft no longer meets the safety requirements for the category declared, the person must notify the public and the FAA. The notification to the public and owners of the small unmanned aircraft should state that the small unmanned aircraft is not eligible for operations over people until the safety defect has been corrected. The notification to the FAA will describe the nature of the noncompliance and how the applicant will address it. If an applicant chooses to correct the safety defect and submits a new DOC that is reviewed and accepted by the FAA, the applicant should notify the public and owners of that make/model that the small unmanned aircraft is again eligible for operations over people in the respective category or categories.

8.10.2.2 Notification to the public could take several forms, as described in
paragraph 8.10.2.1 above. The notice should advise remote pilots that the small unmanned aircraft is no longer eligible to operate over people pursuant to one or more of the specified categories. The FAA expects holders of an FAA-accepted DOC to exercise due diligence to ensure the intended audience receives the communications involving potential unsafe conditions. Applicants should design and utilize a system that facilitates communication with the owners of the small unmanned aircraft. It is important for owners and operators of small unmanned aircraft to be advised that their aircraft may have a safety defect.

8.10.2.3 A holder of an FAA-accepted DOC must notify the FAA of any safety issues it identifies. Although the FAA could use sources other than reports to identify potentially hazardous products, reporting can provide the most timely and effective source of information about small unmanned aircraft. Manufacturers of small unmanned aircraft eligible to conduct operations over people should develop a system for maintaining and reviewing information about their products that might identify when their product has a safety issue that may result in noncompliance for operations over people. This information includes, but is not limited to, consumer complaints, warranty returns, insurance claims or payments, product liability lawsuits, reports of production problems, product testing, or other critical analyses of products. Reporting a safety issue to the FAA would not automatically mean that the FAA would determine that the small unmanned aircraft is no longer eligible to operate over people, or that corrective action is necessary. The FAA would evaluate the report and work with holders of an FAA-accepted DOC to determine if corrective action is appropriate. Holders of an FAA-accepted DOC may notify the FAA of safety issues through the FAA website.

8.10.2.4 As part of the notification to the FAA, the holder of the DOC should include information regarding the nature of the safety issue, and how the manufacturer, the remote pilot, or another party will correct the issue. Once the safety issue is corrected, the applicant will submit a DOC to the FAA for acceptance. Once the DOC has been accepted, the remote pilot may operate that small unmanned aircraft over people in the category or categories for which compliance was declared. If the holder is unable or unwilling to address the safety issue, the FAA may begin the rescission process as described in paragraph 8.9.5. This safety issue may not necessarily render the small unmanned aircraft incapable of operation under part 107; rather, it would only necessarily render the small unmanned aircraft ineligible to conduct Category 2 or 3 operations over people without a waiver, exemption, or corrective action provided by an applicant and accepted by the FAA.

8.10.2.5 If a holder of an FAA-accepted DOC identifies a corrective action to address the safety issue, the holder will provide information to the owners and operators and the FAA regarding how the safety issue may be resolved. If the person implements the corrective action to resolve the safety issue, he or she must use an FAA-accepted MOC to demonstrate the small unmanned aircraft satisfies the safety requirements to conduct Category 2 or 3 operations over people.

8.10.3 Declaring Compliance for Multiple Small Unmanned Aircraft with the Same Make, Model, and Series (If Applicable). The FAA encourages manufacturers to establish and maintain a production quality system or design configuration control system to provide for consistent repeatability of the small unmanned aircraft as identified on the DOC. A system may provide increased confidence that each small unmanned aircraft meets the safety requirements for the category of operation for which the applicant has declared compliance. With a system, an applicant can avoid testing every unit that it manufactures.

8.10.3.1 The FAA may request access to facilities for validation of compliance with applicable industry consensus standards and FAA regulations, as necessary. As part of the DOC, the applicant who submits the DOC for FAA acceptance agrees to allow unrestricted access to its facilities upon request by the FAA.

8.10.3.2 It is the responsibility of the remote pilot to ensure a small unmanned aircraft is eligible for operations over people for the category declared before conducting such operations. Before conducting operations over people, the remote pilot must determine whether the aircraft is listed on an FAA-accepted DOC appropriate to the category of operations for the intended flight. The remote pilot may accomplish this by visiting the FAA’s website.

8.10.3.3 The FAA will maintain a website listing eligible small unmanned aircraft by make, model, series (if applicable), and category declared that are eligible for operations over people. This FAA website will also indicate those small unmanned aircraft by make, model, series (if applicable), and category that have been found to be in noncompliance with the regulatory requirements through the DOC rescission process. The FAA will publish the final rescission on the FAA website and specify the category of small unmanned aircraft that have been rescinded. If the FAA rescinds a DOC as a result of an unresolved safety issue, the FAA will allow an applicant to petition for reconsideration of the decision or modify the small unmanned aircraft to resolve the safety issue. The applicant could then submit a new DOC that the FAA may accept.

8.10.3.4 The person who holds an FAA-accepted DOC can notify the FAA electronically of a safety issue with the small unmanned aircraft on the FAA’s website. When the FAA receives such notification, the FAA will document receipt and may inform the public. The FAA may provide applicant-included information regarding the nature of the safety issue and any other information the applicant provides relating to the safety issue.

8.10.3.5 As part of the notification, the person holding the FAA-accepted DOC should include information regarding the nature of the safety issue and how the safety issue may be corrected. If the person has not determined a corrective action to address the safety issue, the person should advise the public of the nature of the safety issue and a plan for correcting the safety issue. The holder of the FAA-accepted DOC may advise aircraft owners whether operation over people should be continued with their aircraft due to the nature of the safety issue.

8.10.3.6 If the person who holds an FAA-accepted DOC determines a means to correct the safety issue, that person could provide the corrective action information to the owners and operators through their product support and notification system of how the safety issue can be addressed. The FAA will work with the holder of the DOC to determine if the corrective action is acceptable. After the person addresses the safety issue, he or she must conduct the tests, analysis, or inspections necessary to satisfy the performance-based safety requirements through an FAA-accepted MOC, verify there are no safety defects, and submit a new DOC. When the FAA receives and accepts the new DOC, the FAA-accepted DOC will be provided on the FAA’s website.

8.10.4 Recordkeeping Requirements. The FAA requires small unmanned aircraft records related to DOCs be maintained for a minimum of 2 years after the small unmanned aircraft has ceased being manufactured, or the applicant who designs or modifies a small unmanned aircraft must retain the records for 2 years after the applicant submitted the DOC. The detailed description of the MOC and justification showing how the MOC meets the safety requirements for Category 2 or 3, or both, must be retained for as long as the MOC remains accepted. In the event of a safety defect, or if the FAA initiated an enforcement action against an applicant, this information is critical to determine the cause, scope, and severity of the defect or noncompliance. A person submitting a DOC who modifies a small unmanned aircraft must retain all supporting information used to demonstrate the small unmanned aircraft meets the safety requirements of Category 2 or 3.

8.10.4.1 The FAA will access the information described above in several situations. For example, if the FAA becomes aware of a potential safety issue, the FAA will require all substantiating data to determine whether a safety issue exists. The FAA would seek supporting data after any modifications have been made.

Note: For DOCs that are resubmitted, the same recordkeeping requirements will apply.

8.10.5 Holders of an FAA-Accepted DOC No Longer Supporting the Small Unmanned Aircraft Design. A DOC remains valid even in the case of discontinued models. Therefore, the small unmanned aircraft may still remain listed on the FAA website as eligible to operate over people in accordance with the original DOC. However, if an unsafe condition is identified, the FAA may rescind the DOC. Any applicant could submit a new DOC with design changes that rectify the unsafe condition, provided the requirements to submit a DOC in accordance with § 107.160 can be satisfied.

8.11 Product Labeling.

8.11.1  Category 1. The FAA does not require labeling of small unmanned aircraft eligible for Category 1 operations. Marking the retail packaging with the weight of the aircraft, or with a general statement that the aircraft weighs 0.55 pounds or less would be helpful to the consumer. The manufacturer may also provide information to assist the pilot in determining that the small unmanned aircraft does not have any exposed rotating parts that would lacerate human skin upon impact. This type of packaging would also serve to promote the aircraft to consumers wishing to buy a small unmanned aircraft that has minimal operating restrictions. The FAA expects applicants to provide this type of information on the packaging of a small unmanned aircraft for easy identification purposes; however, such packaging is not required. It is the responsibility of the remote pilot to ensure the small unmanned aircraft meets the applicable requirements. Before conducting Category 1 operations, the remote pilot must determine that the small unmanned aircraft weighs 0.55 pounds or less, including everything that is on board or otherwise attached to the aircraft at the time of takeoff and throughout the duration of each operation. Additionally, the remote pilot is responsible for determining the small unmanned aircraft does not contain any exposed rotating parts that would lacerate human skin upon impact.

8.11.2  Category 2 and Category 3. To be eligible for operations over people in accordance with Category 2 or Category 3, the small unmanned aircraft must display a label indicating the category or categories for which the small unmanned aircraft is eligible to conduct operations. Because operating limitations apply to operations under Category 3, the label on the small unmanned aircraft indicating eligibility for operations under Category 3 also serves to inform the remote pilot of the operating limitations that he or she is required to observe (§§ 107.120(b)(1) and 107.130(b)(1)).

8.11.2.1 The FAA does not provide a prescriptive labeling requirement that specifies exactly how an applicant must label an aircraft, what size font to use, specific location, etc. Due to the large variety of small unmanned aircraft models that exist, a prescriptive requirement would be inappropriate. Instead, the FAA allows the small unmanned aircraft to be labeled by any means as long as the label is in English, legible, prominent, and permanently affixed to the aircraft before conducting any operations over people. For example, an applicant may use the following labels: “Category 2,” “Category 3,” “Cat. 2,” or “Cat. 3.” The label could be painted, etched, or affixed to the aircraft by any permanent means. The label should be located externally, where it can easily be seen. The FAA does not prescribe a specific location for label placement because of the design variations of small unmanned aircraft. In the case of very small unmanned aircraft, an applicant may need to exercise creativity in determining the location best suited to satisfying the labeling requirement. Locating a label on a non-critical surface will likely prevent wear and removal during normal operations.

8.11.2.2 If a Category 2 or Category 3 label affixed to a small unmanned aircraft is damaged, destroyed, or missing, a remote PIC must label the aircraft in English such that the label is legible, prominent, and will remain on the small unmanned aircraft for the duration of the operation before conducting operations over human beings. The label must correctly identify the category or categories of operation over human beings that the small unmanned aircraft is eligible to conduct.

8.11.2.3 In order to comply with labeling requirements, a remote pilot must ensure the small unmanned aircraft is properly labeled before conducting any operations over people. A clear and legible label enables a remote pilot, an inspector, or a member of the public to identify the types of operations a small unmanned aircraft is eligible to conduct. An aircraft without a clearly legible label would not be eligible to operate over people. If a label degrades and is no longer legible or attached to the aircraft, the remote pilot is responsible for providing a new label before operating over people. The labeling requirement applies regardless of whether a small unmanned aircraft is obtained directly from an applicant or as a subsequent transfer. No pilot may operate the small unmanned aircraft unless the pilot verifies that the label meets the requirements of §§ 107.120(b)(1) and 107.130(b)(1), as applicable. If the small unmanned aircraft was manufactured before the effective date of this rule, or the small unmanned aircraft was otherwise not labeled, the remote pilot is responsible for determining whether the small unmanned aircraft is listed on an FAA-accepted DOC. If the small unmanned aircraft is eligible to operate over people, the remote pilot is responsible for labeling the aircraft in accordance with this § 107.135.

8.11.2.4 A label will need to be changed if a small unmanned aircraft is modified for operation in a different or additional category. If the small unmanned aircraft has been modified and is no longer eligible to operate in its previously labeled category, the label must identify the category the small unmanned aircraft is eligible to operate within. The person who performed the modification would have to remove or cover the previous label so only the label with the new eligible category is visible on the aircraft.

8.12 Remote Pilot Operating Instructions. The FAA requires applicants to provide remote pilot operating instructions for a small unmanned aircraft eligible to conduct Category 2 or Category 3 operations upon sale or transfer of the small unmanned aircraft, or use of the small unmanned aircraft by someone other than the applicant. In addition, the applicant should keep the instructions up-to-date to account for any changes it makes to a small unmanned aircraft.

8.12.1 The remote pilot operating instructions must include, at a minimum, the following information:

1. General information, system description, and system limitations, including the category or categories of operations over people that the small unmanned aircraft is eligible to conduct. This information must describe whether the small unmanned aircraft must include a specific component on the aircraft in order to fulfill the performance-based safety requirements of Category 2 or Category 3, or both, for which the small unmanned aircraft applicant has declared compliance. For example, if an applicant has designed the small unmanned aircraft to have a parachute system or other device affixed to the aircraft and that component is provided separately, the remote pilot operating instructions must clearly identify the component that must be attached. Similarly, the remote pilot operating instructions must list components that are eligible or necessary for inclusion on the aircraft.

2. A statement describing allowable modifications to the small unmanned aircraft.

a. If modifications are allowed, the remote pilot operating instructions must include a complete description of modifications the applicant has determined do not change the eligibility for the category or categories of operations over people for which the small unmanned aircraft has been declared compliant. Such descriptions of modifications include descriptions of the small unmanned aircraft itself as well as any payload that any person may include on the aircraft.

b. Modifications the applicant describes in the remote pilot operating instructions must be consistent with the basis for the FAA’s acceptance of the DOC. Any person, however, who modifies a small unmanned aircraft in a way that will affect the eligibility of the small unmanned aircraft to operate over people under Category 2 or Category 3 is required to submit a new DOC for FAA acceptance before the small unmanned aircraft is eligible to operate over people.

3. A statement regarding whether the small unmanned aircraft has variable modes or configurations.

a. For a small unmanned aircraft that has such variable modes or configurations, the instructions must describe how a remote pilot can verify what mode or configuration the small unmanned aircraft is in and how to switch between modes or configurations. This information assists the remote pilot in verifying that the small unmanned aircraft is in the correct mode or configuration to conduct a certain category of operations over people.

b. Similarly, if a remote pilot chooses to operate in a different category of operations over people, or in a mode or configuration that is not permitted for operations over people but is permitted under part 107, that person must be able to discern the necessary information from the remote pilot operating instructions. The remote pilot should not be able to inadvertently change the mode or configuration.

8.12.2 The remote pilot operating instructions must be specific to the particular small unmanned aircraft design. An applicant may update existing instructions to include the required information with the small unmanned aircraft, or the applicant may create a new set of instructions that are specific to operations over people.

8.12.2.1 The FAA does not require the applicant to provide the remote pilot operating instructions in a particular format. An applicant could choose to provide the operating instructions as part of the packaging of a small unmanned aircraft, make them available electronically, or by any other means. Regardless of the manner in which the applicant transmits the instructions to remote pilots, the applicant should ensure the instructions remain up-to-date. Remote PICs should be able to discern clearly the set of operating instructions that are in effect at the time of the intended operation of the small unmanned aircraft over people.

8.12.2.2 Information contained in the remote pilot operating instructions should provide enough detail to enable remote pilots to understand clearly how to configure the small unmanned aircraft to ensure compliance with applicable requirements for operating over people. This information informs the remote pilot and aids in decision making. While the remote pilot operating instructions can aid a remote pilot in operating safely, it is ultimately the responsibility of the remote PIC to determine the safe operational parameters for the operation. A description of each of the elements the FAA requires in remote pilot operating instructions follows.

 

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