Sarah Nilsson, JD, PhD, MAS
Sarah Nilsson, JD, PhD, MAS

Test Prep 7 - Airspace

UA.II.B.K2 - ATC authorizations and related operating limitations

UA.II.B.K3 - Operations near airports

UA.II.B.K4 - Potential flight hazards

AIM 7−5−2

VFR in Congested Areas

A high percentage of near midair collisions occur below 8,000 feet AGL and within 30 miles of an airport. When operating VFR in these highly congested areas, whether you intend to land at an airport within the area or are just flying through, it is recommended that extra vigilance be maintained and that you monitor an appropriate control frequency. Normally the appropriate frequency is an approach control frequency. By such monitoring action you can “get the picture” of the traffic in your area. When the approach controller has radar, radar traffic advisories may be given to VFR pilots upon request.


AIM 7−5−3

Obstructions To Flight

a. General. Many structures exist that could significantly affect the safety of your flight when operating below 500 feet AGL, and particularly below 200 feet AGL. While 14 CFR Part 91.119 allows flight below 500 AGL when over sparsely populated areas or open water, such operations are very dangerous. At and below 200 feet AGL there are numerous power lines, antenna towers, etc., that are not marked and lighted as obstructions and; therefore, may not be seen in time to avoid a collision. Notices to Airmen (NOTAMs) are issued on those lighted structures experiencing temporary light outages. However, some time may pass before the FAA is notified of these outages, and the NOTAM issued, thus pilot vigilance is imperative.


b. Antenna Towers. Extreme caution should be exercised when flying less than 2,000 feet AGL because of numerous skeletal structures, such as radio and television antenna towers, that exceed 1,000 feet AGL with some extending higher than 2,000 feet AGL. Most skeletal structures are supported by guy wires which are very difficult to see in good weather and can be invisible at dusk or during periods of reduced visibility. These wires can extend about 1,500 feet horizontally from a structure; therefore, all skeletal structures should be avoided horizontally by at least 2,000 feet. Additionally, new towers may not be on your current chart because the information was not received prior to the printing of the chart.


c. Overhead Wires. Overhead transmission and utility lines often span approaches to runways, natural flyways such as lakes, rivers, gorges, and canyons, and cross other landmarks pilots frequently follow such as highways, railroad tracks, etc. As with antenna towers, these high voltage/power lines or the supporting structures of these lines may not always be readily visible and the wires may be virtually impossible to see under certain conditions. In some locations, the supporting structures of overhead transmission lines are equipped with unique sequence flashing white strobe light systems to indicate that there are wires between the structures. However, many power lines do not require notice to the FAA and, therefore, are not marked and/or lighted. Many of those that do require notice do not exceed 200 feet AGL or meet the Obstruction Standard of 14 CFR Part 77 and, therefore, are not marked and/or lighted. All pilots are cautioned to remain extremely vigilant for these power lines or their supporting structures when following natural flyways or during the approach and landing phase. This is particularly important for seaplane and/or float equipped aircraft when landing on, or departing from, unfamiliar lakes or rivers.


d. Other Objects/Structures. There are other objects or structures that could adversely affect your flight such as construction cranes near an airport, newly constructed buildings, new towers, etc. Many of these structures do not meet charting requirements or may not yet be charted because of the charting cycle. Some structures do not require obstruction marking and/or lighting and some may not be marked and lighted even though the FAA recommended it.


UA.II.B.K4a - Common aircraft accident causal factors

AIM 7−5−1

Accident Cause Factors

a. The 10 most frequent cause factors for general aviation accidents that involve the pilot-in-command are:

1. Inadequate preflight preparation and/or planning.

2. Failure to obtain and/or maintain flying speed.

3. Failure to maintain direction control.

4. Improper level off.

5. Failure to see and avoid objects or obstructions.

6. Mismanagement of fuel.

7. Improper inflight decisions or planning.

8. Misjudgment of distance and speed.

9. Selection of unsuitable terrain.

10. Improper operation of flight controls.


b. This list remains relatively stable and points out the need for continued refresher training to establish a higher level of flight proficiency for all pilots. A part of the FAA’s continuing effort to promote increased aviation safety is the Aviation Safety Program. For information on Aviation Safety

Program activities contact your nearest Flight Standards District Office.


c. Alertness. Be alert at all times, especially when the weather is good. Most pilots pay attention to business when they are operating in full IFR weather conditions, but strangely, air collisions almost invariably have occurred under ideal weather conditions. Unlimited visibility appears to encourage a sense of security which is not at all justified. Considerable information of value may be obtained by listening to advisories being issued in the terminal area, even though controller workload may prevent a pilot from obtaining individual service.


d. Giving Way. If you think another aircraft is too close to you, give way instead of waiting for the other pilot to respect the right-of-way to which you may be entitled. It is a lot safer to pursue the right-of-way angle after you have completed your flight.


UA.II.B.K4b - Avoid flight beneath unmanned balloons

AIM 7−5−4

Avoid Flight Beneath Unmanned Balloons

a. The majority of unmanned free balloons currently being operated have, extending below them, either a suspension device to which the payload or instrument package is attached, or a trailing wire antenna, or both. In many instances these balloon subsystems may be invisible to the pilot until the aircraft is close to the balloon, thereby creating a potentially dangerous situation. Therefore, good judgment on the part of the pilot dictates that aircraft should remain well clear of all unmanned free balloons and flight below them should be avoided at all times.


b. Pilots are urged to report any unmanned free balloons sighted to the nearest FAA ground facility with which communication is established. Such information will assist FAA ATC facilities to identify and flight follow unmanned free balloons operating in the airspace.


UA.II.B.K4c - Emergency airborne inspection of other aircraft

AIM 7−5−10

Emergency Airborne Inspection of Other Aircraft

a. Providing airborne assistance to another aircraft may involve flying in very close proximity to that aircraft. Most pilots receive little, if any, formal training or instruction in this type of flying activity.

Close proximity flying without sufficient time to plan (i.e., in an emergency situation), coupled with the stress involved in a perceived emergency can be hazardous.


b. The pilot in the best position to assess the situation should take the responsibility of coordinating the airborne intercept and inspection, and take into account the unique flight characteristics and differences of the category(s) of aircraft involved.


c. Some of the safety considerations are:

1. Area, direction and speed of the intercept;

2. Aerodynamic effects (i.e., rotorcraft downwash);

3. Minimum safe separation distances;

4. Communications requirements, lost communications procedures, coordination with ATC;

5. Suitability of diverting the distressed aircraft to the nearest safe airport; and

6. Emergency actions to terminate the intercept.


d. Close proximity, inflight inspection of another aircraft is uniquely hazardous. The pilot−in− command of the aircraft experiencing the problem/emergency must not relinquish control of the situation and/or jeopardize the safety of their aircraft. The maneuver must be accomplished with minimum risk to both aircraft.


UA.II.B.K4d - Precipitation static

AIM 7−5−11

Precipitation Static

a. Precipitation static is caused by aircraft in flight coming in contact with uncharged particles. These particles can be rain, snow, fog, sleet, hail, volcanic ash, dust; any solid or liquid particles. When the aircraft strikes these neutral particles the positive element of the particle is reflected away from the aircraft and the negative particle adheres to the skin of the aircraft. In a very short period of time a substantial negative charge will develop on the skin of the aircraft. If the aircraft is not equipped with static dischargers, or has an ineffective static discharger system, when a sufficient negative voltage level is reached, the aircraft may go into “CORONA.” That is, it will discharge the static electricity from the extremities of the aircraft, such as the wing tips, horizontal stabilizer, vertical stabilizer, antenna, propeller tips, etc. This discharge of static electricity is what you will hear in your headphones and is what we call P−static.


b. A review of pilot reports often shows different symptoms with each problem that is encountered.

The following list of problems is a summary of many pilot reports from many different aircraft. Each problem was caused by P−static:

1. Complete loss of VHF communications.

2. Erroneous magnetic compass readings (30 percent in error).

3. High pitched squeal on audio.

4. Motor boat sound on audio.

5. Loss of all avionics in clouds.

6. VLF navigation system inoperative most of the time.

7. Erratic instrument readouts.

8. Weak transmissions and poor receptivity of radios.

9. “St. Elmo’s Fire” on windshield.


c. Each of these symptoms is caused by one general problem on the airframe. This problem is the inability of the accumulated charge to flow easily to the wing tips and tail of the airframe, and properly discharge to the airstream.


d. Static dischargers work on the principal of creating a relatively easy path for discharging negative charges that develop on the aircraft by using a discharger with fine metal points, carbon coated rods, or carbon wicks rather than wait until a large charge is developed and discharged off the trailing edges of the aircraft that will interfere with avionics equipment. This process offers approximately

50 decibels (dB) static noise reduction which is adequate in most cases to be below the threshold of noise that would cause interference in avionics equipment.


e. It is important to remember that precipitation static problems can only be corrected with the proper number of quality static dischargers, properly installed on a properly bonded aircraft. P−static is indeed a problem in the all weather operation of the aircraft, but there are effective ways to combat it. All possible methods of reducing the effects of P−static should be considered so as to provide the best possible performance in the flight environment.


f. A wide variety of discharger designs is available on the commercial market. The inclusion of well−designed dischargers may be expected to improve airframe noise in P−static conditions by as much as 50 dB. Essentially, the discharger provides a path by which accumulated charge may leave the airframe quietly. This is generally accomplished by providing a group of tiny corona points to permit onset of corona−current flow at a low aircraft potential. Additionally, aerodynamic design of dischargers to permit corona to occur at the lowest possible atmospheric pressure also lowers the corona threshold. In addition to permitting a low−potential discharge, the discharger will minimize the radiation of radio frequency (RF) energy which accompanies the corona discharge, in order to minimize effects of RF components at communications and navigation frequencies on avionics performance. These effects are reduced through resistive attachment of the corona point(s) to the airframe, preserving direct current connection but attenuating the higher−frequency components of the discharge.


g. Each manufacturer of static dischargers offers information concerning appropriate discharger location on specific airframes. Such locations emphasize the trailing outboard surfaces of wings and horizontal tail surfaces, plus the tip of the vertical stabilizer, where charge tends to accumulate on the airframe. Sufficient dischargers must be provided to allow for current−carrying capacity which will maintain airframe potential below the corona threshold of the trailing edges.


h. In order to achieve full performance of avionic equipment, the static discharge system will require periodic maintenance. A pilot knowledgeable of P−static causes and effects is an important element in assuring optimum performance by early recognition of these types of problems.


UA.II.B.K4e - Light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation (laser) operations and reporting illumination of aircraft

AIM 7−5−12

Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (Laser) Operations and Reporting Illumination of Aircraft

a. Lasers have many applications. Of concern to users of the National Airspace System are those laser events that may affect pilots, e.g., outdoor laser light shows or demonstrations for entertainment and advertisements at special events and theme parks.

Generally, the beams from these events appear as bright blue−green in color; however, they may be red, yellow, or white. However, some laser systems produce light which is invisible to the human eye.


b. FAA regulations prohibit the disruption of aviation activity by any person on the ground or in the air. The FAA and the Food and Drug Administration (the Federal agency that has the responsibility to enforce compliance with Federal requirements for laser systems and laser light show products) are working together to ensure that operators of these devices do not pose a hazard to aircraft operators.


c. Pilots should be aware that illumination from these laser operations are able to create temporary vision impairment miles from the actual location. In addition, these operations can produce permanent eye damage. Pilots should make themselves aware of where these activities are being conducted and avoid these areas if possible.


d. Recent and increasing incidents of unauthorized illumination of aircraft by lasers, as well as the proliferation and increasing sophistication of laser devices available to the general public, dictates that the FAA, in coordination with other government agencies, take action to safeguard flights from these unauthorized illuminations.


e. Pilots should report laser illumination activity to the controlling Air Traffic Control facilities, Federal

Contract Towers or Flight Service Stations as soon as possible after the event. The following information should be included:

1. UTC Date and Time of Event.

2. Call Sign or Aircraft Registration Number.

3. Type Aircraft.

4. Nearest Major City.

5. Altitude.

6. Location of Event (Latitude/Longitude and/or Fixed Radial Distance (FRD)).

7. Brief Description of the Event and any other

Pertinent Information.


f. Pilots are also encouraged to complete the Laser Beam Exposure Questionnaire located on the FAA Laser Safety Initiative website at and submit electronically per the directions on the questionnaire, as soon as possible after landing.


g. When a laser event is reported to an air traffic facility, a general caution warning will be broadcasted on all appropriate frequencies every five minutes for 20 minutes and broadcasted on the ATIS for one hour following the report.

PHRASEOLOGY− UNAUTHORIZED LASER ILLUMINATION EVENT, (UTC time), (location), (altitude), (color), (direction).

EXAMPLE− “Unauthorized laser illumination event, at 0100z, 8 mile final runway 18R at 3,000 feet, green laser from the southwest.”

REFERENCE− FAA Order 7110.65, Paragraph 10−2−14, Unauthorized Laser Illumination of Aircraft

FAA Order 7210.3, Paragraph 2−1−27, Reporting Unauthorized Laser Illumination of Aircraft


h. When these activities become known to the FAA, Notices to Airmen (NOTAMs) are issued to inform the aviation community of the events. Pilots should consult NOTAMs or the Special Notices section of the Chart Supplement U.S. for information regarding these activities.


UA.II.B.K4f - Avoid flight in the vicinity of thermal plumes, such as smoke stacks and cooling towers

AIM 7−5−15

Avoid Flight in the Vicinity of Exhaust Plumes (Smoke Stacks and Cooling Towers)

a. Flight Hazards Exist Around Exhaust Plumes. Exhaust plumes are defined as visible or invisible emissions from power plants, industrial production facilities, or other industrial systems that release large amounts of vertically directed unstable gases (effluent). High temperature exhaust plumes can cause significant air disturbances such as turbulence and vertical shear. Other identified potential hazards include, but are not necessarily limited to: reduced visibility, oxygen depletion, engine particulate contamination, exposure to gaseous oxides, and/or icing. Results of encountering a plume may include airframe damage, aircraft upset, and/or engine damage/failure. These hazards are most critical during low altitude flight in calm and cold air, especially in and around approach and departure corridors or airport traffic areas. Whether plumes are visible or invisible, the total extent of their turbulent affect is difficult to predict. Some studies do predict that the significant turbulent effects of an exhaust plume can extend to heights of over 1,000 feet above the height of the top of the stack or cooling tower. Any effects will be more pronounced in calm stable air where the plume is very hot and the surrounding area is still and cold. Fortunately, studies also predict that any amount of crosswind will help to dissipate the effects. However, the size of the tower or stack is not a good indicator of the predicted effect the plume may produce. The major effects are related to the heat or size of the plume effluent, the ambient air temperature, and the wind speed affecting the plume. Smaller aircraft can expect to feel an effect at a higher altitude than heavier aircraft.


b. When able, a pilot should steer clear of exhaust plumes by flying on the upwind side of smokestacks or cooling towers. When a plume is visible via smoke or a condensation cloud, remain clear and realize a plume may have both visible and invisible characteristics. Exhaust stacks without visible plumes may still be in full operation, and airspace in the vicinity should be treated with caution.

As with mountain wave turbulence or clear air turbulence, an invisible plume may be encountered unexpectedly. Cooling towers, power plant stacks, exhaust fans, and other similar structures are depicted in FIG 7−5−2.

Pilots are encouraged to exercise caution when flying in the vicinity of exhaust plumes. Pilots are also encouraged to reference the Chart Supplement U.S. where amplifying notes may caution pilots and identify the location of structure(s) emitting exhaust plumes. The best available information on this phenomenon must come from pilots via the PIREP reporting procedures. All pilots encountering hazardous plume conditions are urgently requested to report time, location, and intensity (light, moderate, severe, or extreme) of the element to the FAA facility with which they are maintaining radio contact. If time and conditions permit, elements should be reported according to the standards for other PIREPs and position reports (AIM Paragraph 7−1−22, PIREPS Relating to Turbulence). 


UA.II.B.K4g - Flying in the wire environment

Safety Alert for Operators (SAFO) 10015

A SAFO contains important safety information and may include recommended action. SAFO content should be especially valuable to air carriers in meeting their statutory duty to provide service with the highest possible degree of safety in the public interest. Besides the specific action recommended in a SAFO, an alternative action may be as effective in addressing the safety issue named in the SAFO.

Subject: Flying in the Wire Environment

Purpose: This SAFO advises operators flying aircraft lower than 1000 ft or less to be aware of the wire hazards in their areas of operation.

Background: The helicopter community in the United States, and world wide, perform their critical operations typically at 1000 ft or less and often times in a wire/obstruction rich environment. Collisions between aircraft and manmade obstacles have occurred since the beginning of manned flight. A 13-year query of the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) database indicates a total of 996 reported aviation accidents/collisions involving wires/power lines in the United States. Of the 996 accidents 301 involved at least one fatality. That averages out to 76.6 accidents annually and with fatalities in 30% of the accidents.

Discussion: The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is working with the International Helicopter Safety Team (IHST) and supports their goal to reduce worldwide helicopter accidents by 80% by 2016. One initiative of the IHST is to encourage manufacturers and operators to install wire strike protection systems on their helicopters. The FAA has partnered with Southern California Edison and Helicopter Association International (HAI) to develop a video on wire strike avoidance awareness. The video describes the risk of operating both helicopters and fixed wing aircraft in the wire environment and avoidance techniques. The FAA hopes that this video will educate viewers about the risk of flying in the wire environment and prevent accidents. The video can be viewed [below or] by clicking on the following link,

Recommended Action: Pilots, directors of operations, chief pilots, training program managers, and training centers providing training in airplanes or helicopters should emphasize to pilots the inherent dangers of flying in the wire environment and ensure such information is incorporated into their pilot training program.

Contact: Questions or comments regarding the content of this SAFO should be directed to Edwin Miller, Part 135 Air Carrier Operations Branch, AFS-250, via phone at (202)-267-8166.


UA.II.B.K5 - The NOTAM system including how to obtain an established NOTAM through Flight Service

Remote pilot sUAS study guide

Notices to Airmen (NOTAMs)

Notices to Airmen, or NOTAMs, are time-critical aeronautical information either temporary in nature or not sufficiently known in advance to permit publication on aeronautical charts or in other operational publications. The information receives immediate dissemination via the National Notice to Airmen (NOTAM) System. NOTAMs contain current notices to airmen that are considered essential to the safety of flight, as well as supplemental data affecting other operational publications. There are many different reasons that NOTAMs are issued. Following are some of those reasons:

- Hazards, such as air shows, parachute jumps, kite flying, and rocket launches

- Flights by important people such as heads of state

- Inoperable lights on tall obstructions

- Temporary erection of obstacles near airfields

- Passage of flocks of birds through airspace (a NOTAM in this category is known as a BIRDTAM)

NOTAMs are available in printed form through subscription from the Superintendent of Documents or online at PilotWeb, which provides access to current NOTAM information. Local airport NOTAMs can be obtained online from various websites. Some examples are and Most sites require a free registration and acceptance of terms but offer pilots updated NOTAMs and TFRs. 

AIM 5−1−3

Notice to Airmen (NOTAM) System 

a. Time-critical aeronautical information which is of either a temporary nature or not sufficiently known in advance to permit publication on aeronautical charts or in other operational publications receives immediate dissemination via the National NOTAM System.



1. NOTAM information is that aeronautical information that could affect a pilot’s decision to make a flight. It includes such information as airport or aerodrome primary runway closures, taxiways, ramps, obstructions, communications, airspace, changes in the status of navigational aids, ILSs, radar service availability, and other information essential to planned en route, terminal, or landing operations.

2. NOTAM information is transmitted using standard contractions to reduce transmission time. See TBL 5−1−2 for a listing of the most commonly used contractions. For

a complete listing, see FAA JO Order 7340.2, Contractions.

b. NOTAM information is classified into five categories. These are NOTAM (D) or distant, Flight

Data Center (FDC) NOTAMs, Pointer NOTAMs, Special Activity Airspace (SAA) NOTAMs, and

Military NOTAMs.


1. NOTAM (D) information is disseminated for all navigational facilities that are part of the National

Airspace System (NAS), all public use airports, seaplane bases, and heliports listed in the Chart

Supplement U.S. The complete file of all NOTAM (D) information is maintained in a computer database at the Weather Message Switching Center (WMSC), located in Atlanta, Georgia. This category of information is distributed automatically via Service A telecommunications system. Air traffic facilities, primarily FSSs, with Service A capability have access to the entire WMSC database of NOTAMs. These NOTAMs remain available via Service A for the duration of their validity or until published. Once published, the NOTAM data is deleted from the system. NOTAM (D) information includes such data as taxiway closures, personnel and equipment near or crossing runways, and airport lighting aids that do not affect instrument approach criteria, such as VASI. All NOTAM Ds must have one of the keywords listed in TBL 5−1−1 as the first part of the text after the location identifier.


2. FDC NOTAMs. On those occasions when it becomes necessary to disseminate information which is regulatory in nature, the National Flight Data Center (NFDC), in Washington, DC, will issue an FDC NOTAM. FDC NOTAMs contain such things as amendments to published IAPs and other current aeronautical charts. They are also used to advertise temporary flight restrictions caused by such things as natural disasters or large-scale public events that may generate a congestion of air traffic over a site.



1. DUATS vendors will provide FDC NOTAMs only upon site-specific requests using a location identifier.

2. NOTAM data may not always be current due to the changeable nature of national airspace system components, delays inherent in processing information, and occasional temporary outages of the U.S. NOTAM system. While en route, pilots should contact FSSs and obtain updated information for their route of flight and destination.

3. Pointer NOTAMs. NOTAMs issued by a flight service station to highlight or point out another NOTAM, such as an FDC or NOTAM (D) NOTAM. This type of NOTAM will assist users in cross−referencing important information that may not be found under an airport or NAVAID identifier.

Keywords in pointer NOTAMs must match the keywords in the NOTAM that is being pointed out.

The keyword in pointer NOTAMs related to Temporary Flight Restrictions (TFR) must be


4. SAA NOTAMs. These NOTAMs are issued when Special Activity Airspace will be active outside the published schedule times and when required by the published schedule. Pilots and other users are still responsible to check published schedule times for Special Activity Airspace as well as any NOTAMs for that airspace.

5. Military NOTAMs. NOTAMs pertaining to U.S. Air Force, Army, Marine, and Navy navigational aids/airports that are part of the NAS.


c. Notices to Airmen Publication (NTAP). The NTAP is published by Mission Support Services, ATC Products and Publications, every 28 days. Data of a permanent nature can be published in the NTAP as an interim step between publication cycles of the Chart Supplement U.S. and aeronautical charts. The NTAP is divided into four parts:


1. Notices in part 1 are provided by ATC Products and Publications. This part contains selected FDC NOTAMs that are expected to be in effect on the effective date of the publication. This part is divided into three sections:

(a) Section 1, Airway NOTAMs, reflects airway changes that fall within an ARTCC’s airspace.

(b) Section 2, Procedural NOTAMs.

(c) Section 3, General NOTAMs, contains NOTAMs that are general in nature and not tied to a specific airport/facility (for example, flight advisories and restrictions, open duration special security instructions, and special flight rules area).


2. Part 2, provided by NFDC, contains Part 95 Revisions, Revisions to Minimum En Route IFR Altitudes and Changeover Points.


3. Part 3, International NOTAMs, is divided into two sections:

(a) Section 1, International Flight Prohibitions, Potential Hostile Situations, and Foreign Notices.

(b) Section 2, International Oceanic Airspace Notices.


4. Part 4, Graphic Notices, compiled by ATC Products and Publications from data provided by FAA service area offices and other lines of business, contains special notices and graphics pertaining to almost every aspect of aviation such as: military training areas, large scale sporting events, air show information, Special Traffic Management Programs (STMP), and airport-specific information. This part is comprised of 6 sections: General, Special Military Operations, Airport and Facility Notices, Major Sporting and Entertainment Events, Airshows, and Special Notices.

TBL 5−1−1 NOTAM Keywords

TBL 5−1−2 Contractions Commonly Found in NOTAMs



(Refer to FAA-CT-8080-2H, Figure 20, area 5.)

How would a remote PIC “CHECK NOTAMS” as noted in the CAUTION box regarding the unmarked balloon?

  1. By utilizing the B4UFLY mobile application
  2. By contacting the FAA district office
  3. By obtaining a briefing via an online source such as:

UA.II.B.K6 - Operator equipment for night flying

UA.II.B.K7 - Ground structures and ground structure lighting

UA.II.B.K8 - Hazards on the ground that do not have lighting

UA.II.B.K9 - Manned aircraft lighting

UA.II.B.K10 - sUAS lighting requirements

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Sarah Nilsson, J.D., Ph.D., MAS


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