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Material last updated on July 13, 2023
April 2021 - FAA-S-ACS-10B - Remote Pilot - sUAS - Aircrew Certification Standards (ACS) is an FAA document used to communicate a means to evaluate the aeronautical knowledge standards for certification knowledge testing for a Remote Pilot Certificate with sUAS rating.
The following web pages (Test Prep 1- 14) are aimed at preparing you for the Remote Pilot Certificate with sUAS rating written certification knowledge test.
FAA views ACS as the foundation of its transition to a more integrated and systematic approach to aircrew certification.
ACS is part of the safety management system (SMS) framework that the FAA uses to mitigate risks associated with aircrew certification training and testing.
ACS, associated guidance, and test question components of the aircrew certification system are constructed around the 4 functional components of an SMS:
1. Safety Policy - aeronautical knowledge, risk management, and flight proficiency as integrated components of the aircrew certification system;
2. Safety Risk Management - processes through which both internal and external stakeholders identify changes in regulations, safety recommendations, or other factors. These changes are then evaluated to determine whether they require modification of aircrew testing and training materials;
3. Safety Assurance - processes to ensure the prompt and appropriate incorporation of changes arising from new regulations and safety recommendations; and
4. Safety Promotion - ongoing engagement with both external stakeholders (e.g., the aviation training community) and FAA policy divisions
Historical Documents (for potential reference)
Feb 2012 - FAA Modernization and Reform Act (FMRA) - PL 112.95
PL 112-95, Title III, Subtitle B. In 2012, Congress passed the FAA Modernization and Reform Act of 2012, PL 112-95. Section 333 of PL 112-95 directed the Secretary of Transportation to determine whether UAS operations posing the least amount of public risk and no threat to national security could safely be operated in the NAS and, if so, to establish requirements for the safe operation of these systems in the NAS. As part of its ongoing efforts to integrate UAS operations in the NAS and in accordance with Section 333, in June 2016, the FAA issued a final rule adding part 107, integrating civil sUAS into the NAS. Part 107 allows sUAS operations for many different purposes without requiring airworthiness certification, exemption, or a Certificate of Waiver or Authorization (COA).
June 2016 - FAA finalized 14 CFR 107 (624-page document) governing commercial UAS operations in the US. The FAA addresses aviation safety in 3 key areas: personnel, equipment, and operations. The FAA assesses each of these areas both independently to meet current regulations and standards, as well as collectively to ensure no conflicts exist overall that would create an unsafe condition. This approach allows the FAA to be flexible in responding to the needs of the aviation community while still being able to establish standards for future growth and development. Part 107 contains subparts that focus on each of these key aviation safety areas specific to sUAS, and the chapters in the AC are organized in the same manner.
July 2016 - FAA Extension, Safety, and Security Act (FESSA) - PL 114-190
Aug 2016 - 14 CFR 107 went into effect
Aug 2016 - FAA-G-8082-22 - FAA Remote Pilot Study Guide went into effect
Oct 2018 - FAA Reauthorization Act - PL 115-254
April 2023 - FAA ORDER JO 7200.23D - went into effect
Feb 2021 - AC 107-2A - guidance to help teach you how to follow the rule
1.1 Purpose of This Advisory Circular (AC). This AC provides guidance in the areas of aircrew (remote pilot) certification, aircraft registration and marking, aircraft airworthiness, and the operation of sUAS in the National Airspace System (NAS) to promote compliance with the requirements of Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 107.
1.1.1 Effects of Guidance. The contents of this document do not have the force and effect of law and are not meant to bind the public in any way. This document is intended only to provide clarity to the public regarding existing requirements under the law or agency policies. It does not provide, nor is it intended to provide, a legal interpretation of the regulations. This AC uses mandatory terms, such as “must,” when the language is describing an established statutory or regulatory requirement. This AC does not change, add to, or delete regulatory requirements or authorize deviations from regulatory requirements or restrictions.
1.1.2 Part 107 Provisions. This AC is not intended to cover every provision of part 107. Rather, this AC is intended to provide guidance on those provisions of part 107 where additional information may be helpful. The FAA emphasizes, however, that persons subject to part 107 are responsible for complying with every applicable provision of part 107, regardless of whether the provision is discussed in this AC.
1.1.3 Privacy-Related Laws. Part 107 operators should be aware that State and local authorities may enact privacy-related laws
specific to UAS operations. The FAA encourages sUAS operators to review those laws prior to operating their UAS. The National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) has also
published the Voluntary Best Practices for UAS
Privacy, Transparency, and Accountability (dated
May 18, 2016). This document outlines and describes voluntary best practices that sUAS operators could take to advance UAS privacy, transparency, and accountability for the private and commercial use of UAS.
The goal of the aircrew certification process is to ensure the applicant possesses knowledge consistent with the privileges of the Remote Pilot Certificate with sUAS rating, as well as the ability to manage the risks of flight in order to act as a remote PIC.
In fulfilling its responsibilities for the aircrew certification process, the FAA Flight Standards Service (AFS) plans, develops, and maintains materials related to aircrew certification testing. These materials include several components.
Other materials, such as aircrew knowledge testing supplements in the FAA-CT-8080 series and FAA online training, provide guidance to applicants on aeronautical knowledge and risk management.
FAA recognizes that safe operations in today's complex NAS require a more systematic integration of aeronautical knowledge and risk management. FAA further recognizes the need to more clearly calibrate knowledge and risk management to the level of the Remote Pilot Certificate with sUAS rating.
The ACS integrates the elements of knowledge and risk management in 14 CFR Part 89 and 14 CFR Part 107 for a Remote Pilot Certificate with sUAS rating. It thus forms the comprehensive standard for what an applicant knows and considers to successfully complete eash Task tested on the knowledge test.
In keeping with this integrated and systematic approach, the knowledge Task elements of each Task identify what the applicant should know and understand for sUAS operations conducted under 14 CFR Part 89 and 14 CFR Part 107. The applicant demonstrates this understanding by passing the knowledge test.
ACS includes Areas of Operation and Tasks for the Issuance of a Remote Pilot Certificate with sUAS rating in accordance with 14 CFR 107.65.
Each Area of Operation is further broken down into Tasks
Each Task is coded according to a scheme that includes 4 elements
The elements are then even further broken down into Task Element Knowledge
UA = Applicable ACS (Uncrewed Aircraft Systems)
I = Area of Operation (Regulations)
B = Task (Operating Rules)
K10 = Task Element Knowledge 10 (Visual line of sight (VLOS) aircraft operations)
At the conclusion of a knowledge test, an applicant is given their Knowledge Test Report (KTR) which lists the applicant's name, date of the test, the type of test, a unique test identification number, the score, and ACS Codes for questions that were answered incorrectly. The printed ACS Codes guide the applicant to the area(s) that were found to be deficient in the test. The codes are found in April 2021 - FAA-S-ACS-10B - Remote Pilot - sUAS - Aircrew Certification Standards (ACS).
FAA encourages applicants to use the ACS as a reference while preparing for the certification aircrew knowledge test.
For those applicants who do not pass the knowledge test for certification, remedial instruction and an enforsement from an instructor is NOT required for retesting.
Applicants who do not meet the requirements in 14 CFR 107.61(d)(2) must pass the knowledge test before applying for a Remote Pilot Certificate with an sUAS rating.
Free FAA training on the FAA Safety Team website:
- Current Part 61 certificate holders are eligible to take ALC-451
- Part 107 remote pilots who are also certificated and current under Part 61 are eligible to take ALC-515
- Part 107 remote pilot certification holders (regardless of currency) are eligible to take ALC-677
The 2-hour certification knowledge test consists of 60 objective, multiple-choice questions
- single correct response for each test question
- each test question is independent of other questions
- correct response to one question does not depend upon, or influence, the correct response to another
Practice tests are available at PSI Services, LLC
The FAA-CT-8080-2H, Aircrew Knowledge Testing Supplement for Sport Pilot, Recreational Pilot, Remote Pilot, and Private Pilot contains the supplemental graphics necessary to assist in answering any question on a Remote Pilot Certification (UAG) knowledge test.
You should become very familiar with this supplement prior to taking the test.
16-1-1-1 PURPOSE. This volume provides information and policy guidance regarding how civil UAS operators, public UAS operators, and model aircraft operators are authorized to conduct flight operations in a manner which complies with the applicable Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR).
NOTE: Special Airworthiness Certificates will be coordinated through the Delegation and Organizational Procedure Branch (AIR-160) staff with assistance from Air Traffic Organization (ATO) and Flight Standards Service for final approval and disposition.
Certification Knowledge Test
Areas of Operation in total, some more complex than others
UA.I - Regulations
UA.II - Airspace Classification and Operating Requirements
UA.III - Weather
UA.IV - Loading and Performance
UA.V - Operations
UA.I - Regulations
15-25% of items on Certification Knowledge Test
UA.I.A - Task A. General
Objective: To determine that the applicant is knowledgeable in the general regulatory requirements of 14 CFR Part 89 and 14 CFR Part 107.
UA.I.A.K1 - Applicability of 14 CFR Part 107 to sUA operations
UA.I.A.K2 - Definitions used in 14 CFR Part 107
UA.I.A.K3 - Ramifications of falsification, reproduction, or alteration of a certificate, rating, authorization, record, or report
UA.I.A.K4 - Accident reporting
UA.I.A.K5 - Inspection, testing, and demonstration of compliance
UA.I.A.K6 - Multiple category sUAS
UA.I.A.K7 - Record retention
UA.I.A.K8 - Previously manufactured sUAS
UA.I.B - Task B. Operating Rules
Objective: To determine that the applicant is knowledgeable of the operating rules of 14 CFR Part 89 and 14 CFR Part 107, the registration rules of 14 CFR Part 47 and 14 CFR Part 48, and other associated operating requirements.
UA.I.B.K1 - Registration requirements for sUAS
UA.I.B.K2 - Requirement for the sUAS to be in a condition for safe operation
UA.I.B.K3 - Medical condition(s) that would interfere with safe operation of an sUAS
UA.I.B.K4 - Responsibility and authority of the remote PIC
UA.I.B.K4a - Allowing a person other than the remote PIC to manipulate the flight controls
UA.I.B.K5 - Regulatory deviation and reporting requirements for in-flight emergencies
UA.I.B.K6 - Hazardous operations
UA.I.B.K6a - Careless or reckless
UA.I.B.K6b - Dropping an object
UA.I.B.K7 - Operating from a moving aircraft or moving land- or water-borne vehicle
UA.I.B.K8 - Alcohol or drugs and the provisions on prohibition of use
UA.I.B.K9 - Daylight operations
UA.I.B.K10 - Visual line of sight (VLOS) aircraft operations
UA.I.B.K11 - Requirements when a visual observer is used
UA.I.B.K12 - Prohibition of operating multiple sUAS
UA.I.B.K13 - Prohibition of carrying hazardous material
UA.I.B.K14 - Staying safely away from other aircraft and right-of-way rules
UA.I.B.K14a - See and avoid other aircraft and other potential hazard considerations of the remote PIC
UA.I.B.K15 - Operations over human beings - see Area of Operation I, Task E
UA.I.B.K16 - Prior authorization required for operation in certain airspace
UA.I.B.K17 - Operating in the vicinity of airports
UA.I.B.K18 - Operating in prohibited or restricted areas
UA.I.B.K19 - Flight restrictions in the proximity of certain areas designated by notice to air mission (NOTAM)
UA.I.B.K20 - Preflight familiarization, inspection, and actions for aircraft operations
UA.I.B.K21 - Operating limitations for sUAS
UA.I.B.K21a - Maximum groundspeed
UA.I.B.K21b - Altitude limitations
UA.I.B.K21c - Minimum visibility
UA.I.B.K21d - Cloud clearance requirements
UA.I.B.K22 - Requirements for a Remote Pilot Certificate with an sUAS rating
UA.I.B.K23 - Automated operations
UA.I.B.K24 - Civil twilight operations
UA.I.B.K25 - Night operations
UA.I.B.K26 - Transportation of property
UA.I.B.K27 - ATC transponder equipment prohibition
UA.I.B.K28 - ADS-B out prohibition
UA.I.C - Task C. Remote Pilot Certification with an sUAS rating
Objective: To determine that the applicant is knowledgeable in the requirements associated with remote pilot certification with an sUAS rating.
UA.I.C.K1 - Offenses involving alcohol or drugs
UA.I.C.K2 - Consequences of refusing to submit to a drug or alcohol test or to furnish test results
UA.I.C.K3 - Eligibility requirements for a Remote Pilot Certificate with an sUAS rating
UA.I.C.K4 - Aeronautical knowledge recency
UA.I.D - Task D. Waivers
Objective: To determine that the applicant is knowledgeable of the FAA waiver policy and requirements.
UA.I.D.K1 - Waiver policy and requirements
UA.I.E - Task E. Operations over People
Objective: To determine that the applicant is knowledgeable of the operating rules of 14 CFR Part 89 and 14 CFR Part 107, and the associated operating requirements when operating over people.
UA.I.E.K1 - Remote pilot responsibilities when operating over people
UA.I.E.K2 - Operations over people at night
UA.I.E.K3 - Category of operations, including:
UA.I.E.K3a - Category 1
UA.I.E.K3b - Category 2
UA.I.E.K3c - Category 3
UA.I.E.K3d - Category 4
UA.I.E.K4 - Selecting an operational area
UA.I.E.K5 - Minimum distances from a person
UA.I.E.K6 - Operations over moving vehicles
UA.I.E.K7 - Modifications to an sUAS
UA.I.E.K8 - Closed and restricted access sites
UA.I.E.K9 - Remote pilot operating limitations
UA.I.E.K10 - Required components and Category declaration
UA.I.E.K11 - Optional components
UA.I.E.K12 - Applicant produced, designed, or modified sUAS for operations over people
UA.I.E.K13 - Declaration of Compliance (DoC)
UA.I.E.K14 - Maintenance of an sUAS that is eligible for operations over people
UA.I.E.K15 - Means of Compliance (MoC)
UA.I.E.K16 - Impact kinetic energy
UA.I.E.K17 - Exposed rotating parts
UA.I.F - Task F. Remote Identification (RID)
Objective: To determine the applicant exhibits satisfactory knowledge associated with operating rules of 14 CFR Part 89 and their associated operating requirements.
UA.I.F.K1 - Standard remote identification
UA.I.F.K2 - Alternative remote identification
UA.I.F.K3 - Operations for aeronautical research
UA.I.F.K4 - ADS-B out
UA.I.F.K5 - Confirmation of identification
UA.I.F.K6 - Minimum message elements broadcast for remote identification
UA.I.F.K7 - Product labeling
UA.II - Airspace Classification and Operating Requirements
15-25% of items on Certification Knowledge Test
UA.II.A - Task A. Airspace Classification
Objective: To determine that the applicant is knowledgeble in airspace classification.
UA.II.A.K1 - General airspace:
UA.II.A.K1a - Class B controlled airspace
UA.II.A.K1b - Class C controlled airspace
UA.II.A.K1c - Class D controlled airspace
UA.II.A.K1d - Class E controlled airspace
UA.II.A.K1e - Class G uncontrolled airspace
UA.II.A.K2 - Special-use airspace, such as prohibited, restricted, warning areas, military operation areas, alert areas, and controlled firing areas
UA.II.A.K3 - Other airspace areas, such as Airport Advisory Services, Military Training Routes (MTRs), Temporary Flight Restrictions (TFRs), Parachute Jump Operations, Terminal Radar Service Areas (TRSAs), National Security Areas (NSAs), and Visual Flight Rules (VFR) routes.
UA.II.A.K4 - Air Traffic Control (ATC) and the NAS
UA.II.B - Task B. Airspace Operational Requirements
Objective: To determine that the applicant is knowledgeable of airspace operational requirements.
UA.II.B.K1 - Basic weather minimums
UA.II.B.K2 - ATC authorizations and related operating limitations
UA.II.B.K3 - Operations near airports
UA.II.B.K4 - Potential flight hazards
UA.II.B.K4a - Common aircraft accident causal factors
UA.II.B.K4b - Avoid flight beneath uncrewed balloons
UA.II.B.K4c - Emergency airborne inspection of other aircraft
UA.II.B.K4d - Precipitation static
UA.II.B.K4e - Light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation (LASER) operations and reporting illumination of aircraft
UA.II.B.K4f - Avoiding flight in the vicinity of thermal plumes such as smoke stacks and cooling towers
UA.II.B.K4g - Flying in the wire environment
UA.II.B.K5 - The NOTAM system, including how to obtain an established NOTAM through Flight Service
UA.II.B.K6 - Operator equipment for night flying
UA.II.B.K7 - Ground structures and ground structure lighting
UA.II.B.K8 - Hazards on the ground that do not have lighting
UA.II.B.K9 - Crewed aircraft lighting
UA.II.B.K10 - sUAS lighting requirements
UA.III - Weather
11-16% of items on Certification Knowledge Test
UA.III.A - Task A. Sources of Weather
Objective: To determine that the applicant is knowledgeable in sources of weather information.
UA.III.A.K1 - Internet weather briefing and sources of weather available for flight planning purposes
UA.III.A.K2 - Aviation routine weather reports (METAR)
UA.III.A.K3 - Terminal aerodrome forecasts (TAF)
UA.III.A.K4 - Weather charts
UA.III.A.K5 - Automated surface observing systems (ASOS) and automated weather observing systems (AWOS)
UA.III.B - Task B. Effects of Weather on Performance
Objective: To determine that the applicant is knowledgeable of the effects of weather on performance.
UA.III.B.K1 - Weather factors and their effects on performance
UA.III.B.K1a - Density altitude
UA.III.B.K1b - Wind and currents
UA.III.B.K1c - Atmospheric stability, pressure, and temperature
UA.III.B.K1d - Air masses and fronts
UA.III.B.K1e - Thunderstorms and microbursts
UA.III.B.K1f - Tornadoes
UA.III.B.K1g - Icing
UA.III.B.K1h - Hail
UA.III.B.K1i - Fog
UA.III.B.K1j - Ceiling and visibility
UA.III.B.K1k - Lightning
UA.IV - Loading and Performance
7-11% of items on Certification Knowledge Test
UA.IV.A - Task A. Loading and Performance
Objective: To determine that the applicant is knowledgeable in the loading and performance of an sUAS.
UA.IV.A.K1 - General loading and performance, including:
UA.IV.A.K1a - Effects of loading changes
UA.IV.A.K1b - Balance, stability, and center of gravity
UA.IV.A.K2 - Importance and use of performance data to calculate the effect on the aircraft's performance of an sUAS
UA.V - Operations
35-45% of items on Certification Knowledge Test
UA.V.A - Task A. Radio Communications Procedures
Objective: To determine that the applicant is knowledgeable in radio communication procedures.
UA.V.A.K1 - Airport operations with and without an operating control tower
UA.V.A.K2 - Description and use of a Common Traffic Advisory Frequency (CTAF) to monitor crewed aircraft communications
UA.V.A.K3 - Recommended traffic advisory procedures used by crewed aircraft pilots such as self-announcing of position and intentions
UA.V.A.K4 - Aeronautical advisory communication station (UNICOM) and associated communication procedures used by crewed aircraft pilots
UA.V.A.K5 - Automatic Terminal Information Service (ATIS)
UA.V.A.K6 - Aircraft call signs and registration numbers
UA.V.A.K7 - The phonetic alphabet
UA.V.A.K8 - Phraseology: altitudes, directions, speed, and time
UA.V.B - Task B. Airport Operations
Objective: To determine that the applicant is knowledgeable in airport operations.
UA.V.B.K1 - Types of airports such as towered, uncontrolled towered, heliport, and seaplane bases
UA.V.B.K2 - ATC towers, such as ensuring the remote pilot can monitor and interpret ATC communications to improve situational awareness
UA.V.B.K3 - Runway markings and signage
UA.V.B.K4 - Traffic patterns used by crewed aircraft pilots
UA.V.B.K5 - Security Identification Display Areas (SIDA)
UA.V.B.K6 - Sources for airport data
UA.V.B.K6a - Aeronautical charts
UA.V.B.K6b - Chart Supplements
UA.V.B.K7 - Avoiding bird and wildlife hazards and reporting collisions between aircraft and wildlife
UA.V.B.K8 - Airport and seaplane base lighting
UA.V.C - Task C. Emergency Procedures
Objective: To determine that the applicant is knowledgeable in sUAS emergency procedures.
UA.V.C.K1 - Emergency planning and communication
UA.V.C.K2 - Characteristics and potential hazards of lithium batteries
UA.V.C.K2a - Safe transportation such as proper inspection and handling
UA.V.C.K2b - Safe charging
UA.V.C.K2c - Safe usage
UA.V.C.K2d - Risks of fires involving lithium batteries
UA.V.C.K3 - Loss of aircraft control link and fly-aways
UA.V.C.K4 - Loss of Global Positioning System (GPS) signal during flight and potential consequences
UA.V.C.K5 - Frequency spectrums and associated limitations
UA.V.C.K6 - Procedures for operations over people
UA.V.C.K7 - Procedures for operations at night
UA.V.D - Task D. Aeronautical Decision-Making
Objective: To determine that the applicant is knowledgeable in aeronautical decision-making.
UA.V.D.K1 - Aeronautical decision-making
UA.V.D.K1a - Effective team communication
UA.V.D.K1b - Task management
UA.V.D.K2 - Crew Resource Management (CRM)
UA.V.D.K3 - Situational awareness
UA.V.D.K4 - Hazardous attitudes
UA.V.D.K5 - Hazard identification and risk assessment
UA.V.E - Task E. Physiology
Objective: To determine that the applicant is knowledgeable in the physiological factors affecting remote pilot performance.
UA.V.E.K1 - Physiological considerations and their effects on safety such as dehydration and heatstroke
UA.V.E.K2 - Drug and alcohol use
UA.V.E.K3 - Prescription and over-the-counter medication
UA.V.E.K4 - Hyperventilation
UA.V.E.K5 - Stress and fatigue
UA.V.E.K6 - Factors affecting vision
UA.V.E.K7 - Fitness for flight
UA.V.E.K8 - Physiological aspects of night operation
UA.V.E.K9 - Night illusions
UA.V.F - Task F. Maintenance and Inspection Procedures
Objective: To determine that the applicant is knowledgeable in sUAS maintenance and inspection procedures.
UA.V.F.K1 - Basic maintenance
UA.V.F.K2 - Preflight inspection
UA.V.F.K3 - Techniques to mitigate mechanical failures of all elements used in sUAS operations such as the battery and any device(s) used to operate the sUAS
UA.V.F.K4 - Appropriate record keeping
UA.V.F.K5 - Persons that may perform maintenance on a sUAS
UA.V.F.K6 - Preflight inspection for night operations
UA.V.F.K7 - Manufacturer's Declaration of Compliance for Category 2 and 3 operations
Speaking from the standpoint of a seasoned pilot I would like to recommend at this point a free AOPA membership (good for 6 months) so that you can reap the benefits of the Air Safety Institute Interactive modules at several points in this course (these will be denoted by name in message boxes much like this one).
Sarah Nilsson, J.D., Ph.D., MAS
602 561 8665
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